learning process - is a complex system, which includes training activities and the teacher and the student, and based on real or perceived patterns, which are pedagogical principles of learning.
principles of training in pedagogy can be divided into general didactic and methodical.Obschedidakticheskie principles of training in pedagogy - the principles that proclaimed general didactics and are indispensable for the study of any subject.
Methodological guidelines are divided into general methodological principles and chastnometodicheskie training in pedagogy.To apply the general methodological principles such as: differentiated approach, using a variety of exercises, techniques and methods of teaching, the isolation of specific guidelines (the show, explanation, reinforcement), motivation and integrated approach to motivation.By chastnometodicheskim learning principles are principles such as the principle of the oral advance parallel training, communicative orientation, the principle of verbal bases.
Didactic teaching principles in teaching include the principle of scientific, systematic and consistency, clarity, consciousness and activity, availability and affordability, the principle of age-appropriate and the principle of strength by the student knowledge and skills.
scientific principle is the formation of students' scientific knowledge in the analysis of educational material selection it important, essential ideas to identify possible interdisciplinary connections, the use of reliable scientific data and knowledge, and to use accepted scientific terms.
big role in the implementation of the scientific principles play teaching aids, videos, training videos, split-second, and so on.
systems principle implies that knowledge and skills are inextricably linked and form an integrated system, that is a teaching material is learned in three levels: the level of reflection, understanding and mastering.On the first level, the student should have a basic understanding of the subject matter, on the second he would master the theoretical knowledge about the subject, and the third - the practical skills that are achieved as a result of exercise and training.
essence of the principle of availability is to reflect the principles of continuity, gradual and orderly learning.That is, you first need to identify the previously generated knowledge and skills, and then to gradually give new, without forcing the process and not skipping certain stages.The organization of training is necessary to choose such methods, means and forms of education, which would correspond to the level of mental, psychological and physical development of the student.
visibility principle implies not just an illustration of the studied object or phenomenon, and the use of a set of tools, techniques and methods that ensure the formation of a clearer and clearer perception of the communicated knowledge.A large role in the use of visual technique belongs to the verbal comments.
For example, when teaching any motor actions should not just show a particular exercise, and be sure to comment on it, ensuring student awareness of each phase of the movement.Students should not only form an idea of the studied motor action, and experience all the features of this action.
principle of consciousness and activity is based on the formation of students' motivation, inner needs of the need to explore a particular material, the systematic excitation to the studied material.If the student has no desire to study this or that material, then there is no benefit from the lessons will not.
principle strength generated knowledge and skills is not possible without isolation in the main educational material and links it with the existing knowledge of the student.Knowledge and skills to become an internal student property, you need to include them in the system of beliefs and attitudes of the student.It is also necessary to ensure continuous communication of educational material with practical activities.
principles of training and education must take into account the age and individual characteristics.However, in each group of students - both in age and in every class, often appear some individual differences manifested in the peculiarities of the development of any mental processes, different development capabilities, as well as the orientation of interests and needs.
differ and individual characteristics of boys and girls.All the pedagogical principles of education must take into account the real differences.In no case can not rely on the fact that there is a quite versatile recipe, suitable for all occasions.