Contemporary Sociology includes mnozhetsvo scientific schools and scientists, each in its own way explains the essence of sociological nauki.Opredeleny sotsiaologii at this stage as there is quite a lot.The most common are such definitions as "the science of the laws of transmission and the development of social processes and social communities, the mechanism of the relationship between people and society", "the science of the laws of formation, development and existence of society and social relations."
Contemporary Sociology its object called society or individual social phenomena.Sociology thus exploring not just the phenomena, and the most common properties that are not covered by other social sciences (history, philosophy, psychology, political economy, the theory of law).
In this regard, we can conclude that modern sociology - it is a separate science of the general laws of social phenomena and their ancestral properties.In studies of sociology it is not just based on empirical evidence, but also theoretically, it summarizes.
sociology studies not just of man in general, and explores the world of its existence, to which the social environment, the community in which it is included, social networks, lifestyle, social activities.Sociology views the world as a system.Such a system is considered it not only as a functioning and developing, but also as a crisis.Contemporary Sociology aims to study the causes of the crisis and is trying to find a possible way out of it, and one that will be the least painful for the society and the most promising.
Features modern science lies in the fact that it is trying to solve the most acute problem today - the survival of mankind for possible future updates of civilization and raise it to a more advanced stage of relations.Sociology seeks to solve these problems, not only at the global level, but also at the levels of individual social communities, social institutions, by studying the social behavior of individuals.This science examines the stages of development, sustainable development and the functioning of the societies and communities of people.Thus the essence of phenomena and their causes, it is looking for in-depth social processes, relations between individuals and communities.
Destinations modern sociology differ according to two criteria.All schools of modern sociology are divided into two groups.It microsociological and macrosociological theory .
In the latter group are the greatest influence social conflict theory and structural functionalism.All schools are based on the achievements of modern science.
Fundamentals of structural functionalism Talcott Parsons brought, who offered to look at society as a system composed of interconnected functional elements.These elements, he took the individuals, groups, and other community groups, between which there is a relationship.In this theory, the emphasis is on the stability of the social systems and forms of their evolutionary development.
theory of social conflict (conflictological direction of sociology) has emerged in opposition to structural functionalism.The best-known representatives of this trend are L.Kozer and R.Darendorf.
Coser is the author of the theory of positive and functional conflict, which states that the stability of the social system presupposes the existence of mandatory conflict of interests, manifested in social conflicts and clashes.Dahrendorf developed the concept of conflict model of society.The main tenets of his theory are the following: society is in a constant process of change, it is inevitable conflict, all the separate elements of society contribute to its change and integration in society are always dominated by some members over others.
microsociological theory are emphasized on the study of the behavior of individuals in their social relationships.The main theories are microsociology phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, social exchange theory, ethnomethodology.
symbolic interactionism (George Herbert Mead) states that people act with symbolic meanings, which need to be interpreted.Phenomenology (Alfred Schütz) explores the social reality through the study of the daily life of individuals.Ethnomethodology (Harold Garfinkel) considers reality as ruzultaty interpreting human activity.Social exchange theory (George Homans) is based on the principles of behavioral science to explain the social processes.