During the 20th century, Western sociology was a significant evolution, so now is a complex system of concepts, ideas, methods and theories.Empirical sociology refers to important concepts of the sociology of the 20th century, along with the theory of social conflict, the structural and functional analysis, sociometry, symbolic interactionism theory, the concept of social exchange and phenomenological sociology.
empirical sociology includes 2 main areas:
- Applied empirical studies in sociology, their task is to conduct research aimed at solving practical, well-defined problems.
- Academic empirical studies in sociology, their tasks include the formation of a system of scientific knowledge about the phenomena of social life, and some areas, used as a methodological basis of sociological research.
empirical sociology in the second half of the 20th century is developing not only in the US but also in Western Europe.Representatives of the empirical school affect quite a diverse range of interests, but the main problems are solved theoretical and methodological basis of research, as well as the relation and communication volumes of applied and academic areas.
empirical sociology in Russia developed as before the revolution (P.Petrazhitsky, M.Kovalevsky et al.) And in the first ten years after the (A.Gastev, S.Strumilin, A.Todorsky, N.Antsiferov A.aspirations I.Bobrovnikov, A.Boltunov, M.Kornev, M.Lebedinsky, V.Olshansky et al.).Empirical sociology in Russia in the 20 years studied the problems of the organization of labor, improve the culture of education, welfare and production, training of qualified personnel.In the early 30-ies conducting such investigations were halted and resumed only in the 70s (YuLevada, A.Zdravomyslov, I.Kon, G.Osipov, V.Rozhin,null, V.Shubkin, A.Harchev, V.Yadovand etc.).
Today vary visualizations methodology of knowledge.For example, VA poisons known Russian sociologist suggests the following strategies of empirical research in various theoretical approaches.He proposed to base such a formulation of theoretical paradigms: the paradigm in sociology - is a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships of the various theories, including:
a) the adoption of a common philosophical answer to the question "what is social";
b) some general range of problems to be investigated within a particular paradigm;
c) recognition of the validity of the definition of common criteria and the principles of knowledge and credibility in relation to the social processes and phenomena.
the development of Russia and yskoy sociology reviewed three stages:
1st stage (60- to 80-ies. XIX century.).There is sociology in the West and in Russia and and .It is regarded as a science, which uses other sciences as a "warehouse" of the facts necessary for the development of its laws of social dynamics and statics.At this time, both sociology developed as a geographical school, organicism, psychology: the socio-psychism and subjective school.
subjective sociology formed his principles before anyone else.Motive was the desire to argue the ideas of Russian populism and socialism.
Ideas psychological direction investigated crucial role of cultural factors influencing the motivation of human behavior.
2nd stage (80 - 90th. 19 in.).At this time formed antipositivist installation and Marxism.At this time M.M.Kovalevsky released his work "Sociology".He saw sociology as the science of evolution and the organization of society.He emphasized that in sociology difficult intertwined economic, psychological, geographical factors, but none of them, in this case, does not appear decisive.
3rd stage (up to 20-ies of the 20th century).Leading schools - neo.At the same time formed a "Christian sociology."
4th stage (from the 80s of the 20th century to the NV).A new stage, marked by dramatic changes in sociology, which recognizes the autonomy of science.