Psychology as a science studies the behavior and mental processes taking place in human consciousness.
subject of psychology as a science in the different stages of its development are determined differently.Until the 18th century, the traditional representation of its subject was considered a man's soul.In the English assotsianistskoy empirical psychology (Dzh.St.Mill, D.Gartli, Spencer, A. Ben) dealt with the phenomena of consciousness.In structuralism (W. Wundt) object seen in the experience of the subject.Functionalism (F. Brentano) considered intentional acts of consciousness.
subject of psychology as a science, since Sechenov (psychophysiology), understood as the origin of types of mental activity.In behaviorism (J. Watson) mainly considered behavior.Psychoanalysis headed by Sigmund Freud turned to the unconscious.
subject of psychology as a science in Gestalt psychology (Max Wertheimer) is defined as the processing and information processing, as well as the results of these processes.In humanistic psychology (Maslow, Frankl, Carl Rogers, Rollo May) scientists greatest attention is paid to the personal experience of the person.
In domestic science in the early days of the Soviet psychology as such, the question of how to define the subject of psychology as a science seriously raised.Only the thirties began to explain the subject as "sensations, ideas, feelings, thoughts, man."
Halperin has identified the subject of psychology as an indicative activity (this includes cognitive and forms of activity of the human mind and the feelings, needs, will).
Thus, as a result of the development of science subject matter of psychology came to be called mental processes, and related conditions and properties of the people, as well as their patterns of behavior.An important role is given to the study of the creatures of consciousness, its development, operation, and due to the general behavior and action of people.
structure of psychology as a science at the present stage of its development is rather complicated.There are several generally accepted structures designed by renowned psychologists.
Ananiev structures psychology of the divisions studying certain aspects of consciousness and human activity.It allocates a section studying the ontogeny of man as an individual (total, differential, age, ontopsihofiziologiya, psychophysiology);section studies the personality for her life path (total, differential, comparative, psycholinguistics, the doctrine of psychological motivation, psychology of relationships);section studies the person as a subject of activity (the psychology of knowledge, work, creativity, and common genetic psychology).
Hansen highlights such branches of science as a general psychology, psychophysiology, psychophysics, psychology of animals, group of subjects, the development (phylogeny, ontogenesis, anthropogenesis, comparative), activity (behavior, labor, knowledge, communication), social psychology (historical, interpersonal relations, individual, mass communications), typological differences, differences (abnormal differences), ethnic differences, individual differences).
Platonov structures as science: general, developmental psychology, educational, medical, psychology of work, sport, space, aviation, military, legal, public.
main object of psychology as a science - a person or group of people (also animals) as carriers of the psyche.They studied and researched with the help of scientific methods in order to identify practical recommendations, as well as the creation of new theories of science.
Psychology seeks to answer the question of why people behave this way and not in another way in a certain situation.In this context and examined the mechanism how the mind, which directs all the motives and behavioral actions of man.