The development of sociology in Russia

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Sociology in Russia began to emerge in the 60s 19veka.It was at this time the reading public and the scientific community were first acquainted with translations of articles and books Comte.Widespread Russian sociology strongly restrained censorship of the ideas of Comte and decline of interest abroad to positivism after his death.The wave of "second reading" of Auguste Comte, gripped the developed countries and France, and Russia seized.The magazines "Russian word", "Contemporary", "Notes of the Fatherland", etc.articles began to appear on the sociology and Comte, written by VV Lesevichem, PL Lavrov, DI Pisarev.

huge contribution to the development of sociology in Russia made the first Russian sociologists: the founders of the science square, Yuzhakov, Mikhailovsky, Lavrov and others.They have contributed to the development of sociology in Russia's own approach to the formation of knowledge and the study of social phenomena.They viewed society through the prism of the behavior of its individuals, especially people motivated, developed active - subjective method.One of the works NK Mikhailovsky was called - "Heroes and the crowd."The development of sociology in Russia was marked by the following issues: the emergence of the human personality of the individual animal, the progress of society and the division of labor, natural and social value for the development of society, the impact on the progress of the economic sphere.

sociology in Russia by the beginning of the 20th century has had some achievements.The development of sociology in Russia at that time was marked by the spreading of the studied problems occur the following areas: psychological, geographical, materialistic.At this time the Russian sociology begins to influence the development of long-established sciences: history, law, philosophy and other social sciences.

If we talk about the stages of development of sociology in Russia, the first phase may well be attributed formation, the birth of sociology in Russia, which lasted from 60 to 90 years of the 19th century.It was at that time distributed sociological ideas formed the direction of sociological thought, which took root in the Russian science.

Sociology in Russia the period from 90 years of the 19th century to the 20s of the 20th century, considered as the second phase of development - there is institutionalization, ie. E. Its recognition by society and the state, the establishment of scientific institutions,departments and offices, the foundation of societies and scientific journals, etc.

At this stage of the development of sociology in Russia took place in close cooperation with foreign, namely the European sociology.

Tragically, in 1920.formed more cautious and hostile attitude to social science by the Soviet authorities begins.Complete this step closing sociological institutions, and social scientists with non-Marxist views and teachings have been expelled from Russia or sent to the camps to "re-education".Since 1922 the department is closed and stop training in sociology at universities, Case closed society based MM Kovalevsky.

third stage in Russian sociology was the "black" and lasted from the 1920s.until the 1950s.During this period, sociology gets labeled a "bourgeois science" and superseded by the Marxist-Leninist philosophy and scientific communism.

new partial institutionalization began only after the condemned "personality cult" of Stalin, but held back the development of the sociology of the CPSU and she did not receive wide distribution in society.

Modern, the fourth stage began in the 1980s and was marked by the rapid development of Russian sociology.Sociology receives the status of an independent science and taught in all Russian schools.

After going through all the stages of development of sociology in Russia we see that it has more than a half centuries.Due to the fact that it is one of the rapidly developing science, gradually eliminated the gaps of our knowledge of social relationships and society, we are gradually catching up with the national school of sociology developed countries, gone forward.