Relay control voltage generator: the scheme, the principle of action

relay control voltage of the generator - it's an integral part of the electrical system of any car.With it is made in support of a certain voltage range.In this article you will learn about what the design controls exist at the moment, including the mechanisms to be considered, have not used.

main processes of automatic control

It does not matter what type of generator set used in the vehicle.In any case, it has in its structure regulator.Automatic voltage regulation maintains a certain value, no matter how often the generator rotor rotates.The figure shows the relay control voltage generator circuit and its appearance.

Analyzing the physical foundations, with running the generator set, it can be concluded that the output voltage is increased if the rotational speed of the rotor becomes higher.Also, it can be concluded that the voltage regulation is carried out by reducing the current supplied to the winding of the rotor at higher rotational speed.

What generator

any car generator consists of several parts:

1. Rotor field winding around which at work creates an electromagnetic field.

2. The stator with three coils connected in a "star" (removed from them the alternating voltage in the range of 12 to 30 volts).

3. In addition, there is a three-phase rectifier structure consisting of six semiconductor diodes.It should be noted that the relay control voltage generator 2107 (injector or carburetor injection system) is the same.

But work without generator voltage control devices can not.The reason - a change in voltage in a very large range.Therefore it is necessary to use an automatic control system.It consists of a comparator, the control of the executive, master and special sensor.The main element - a regulatory body.It can be either electrical or mechanical.

job generator

When you start the rotation of the rotor, the generator output appears some tension.And it is served on the winding drive through the body of the regulation.It should also be noted that the output of the generator set is connected directly to the battery.Therefore, the field winding voltage is present continually.When the rotor speed increases, begin to change the output voltage of the generator set.Connect the relay voltage regulator generator Valeo or any other manufacturer to the generator output.

When the sensor detects a change, a signal to the comparator, which analyzes it, comparing with the given parameter.Next, the signal goes to a control device, which is produced by the supply to the actuator.The regulator is able to decrease the amount of current that is supplied to the rotor winding.As a result, the output of generator set produced a decrease in voltage.Similarly produced increase said parameter in the case of reducing the speed of the rotor.

Duplex regulators

duplex automatic control system consists of a generator, rectifier element, the storage battery.The basis is an electric magnet, its winding is connected to the sensor.Setpoint device in such types of mechanisms are very simple.This is a spring.As a comparator applies a small lever.He is mobile and makes connections.Executive device is a contact group.Authority regulation - is a constant resistance.Such a relay-control voltage generator circuit is shown in the article, is often used in the art, though, and is obsolete.

Job bilevel control

When the generator output voltage appears which is supplied to the electromagnetic coil of the relay.Thus, a magnetic field with the help of the lever arm is drawn.In the last action of the spring, it is used as a comparator.If the voltage is higher than it should be, contact solenoid fun.In this case, constant resistance circuit off.On the field winding fed less current.On a similar principle operates relay control voltage generator VAZ 21099 cars and other domestic and foreign production.If the output voltage decreases, the contact closure is made, with the current changes in a big way.

Electronic control

have two-level mechanical voltage regulator has a big drawback - excessive wear elements.For this reason, instead of the electromagnetic relay started using semiconductor elements operating in switching mode.The principle of operation is similar, only mechanical elements replaced by electronic.The sensing element is a voltage divider which consists of fixed resistors.As a master device uses a zener diode.

Modern relay control voltage generator VAZ 21099 is a perfect device, reliability and durability.On the executive functions of the transistor control unit.As the changes the output voltage of the generator, electronic switch closes or opens the circuit, if necessary, connect additional resistance.It is worth noting that the two-level regulators are imperfect devices.Instead, better to use a more modern design.

three-tier system of regulation

quality control of such structures is much higher than that discussed earlier.Previously used mechanical design, but today more often contactless device.All components used in this system are the same as that discussed above.But a little different principle.First, voltage is applied by a special divider circuit in which the data processing.Get this relay control voltage generator ("Ford Sierra" can also be equipped with similar equipment) is admissible on any car, if you know the device and wiring.

Here is a comparison of the actual value of the minimum and maximum.If the voltage deviates from the value that is specified, there is a certain signal.It is called the error signal.With it is made of the current regulation, supplied to the field winding.Unlike a two-tier system that has several series resistors.

Modern control system voltage

If the relay-control voltage generator of Chinese scooter duplex, then on expensive cars use more sophisticated devices.Multi-level control system can comprise 3, 4, 5 or more series resistors.There are also tracking the automatic control system.In some designs, you can eliminate the use of series resistors.

Instead, increases the frequency of operation of the electronic key.Use a circuit with an electromagnetic relay is simply impossible in servo control systems.One of the latest developments - a multi-level management system that uses frequency modulation.In such designs requires additional resistance, which serve to control the logic elements.

How to remove the relay controller

Remove the relay control voltage generator ("Lanos" or domestic "nine" you - does not matter) is quite simple.It should be noted that the replacement of the voltage regulator need only one tool - flat or Phillips screwdriver.Shoot or generator belt and the drive is not needed.Most of the devices is on the rear cover of the generator, and combined into a single unit with the brush mechanism.The most frequent breakdowns occur in a few cases.

Firstly, the complete erasure of graphite brushes.Secondly, in the breakdown of the semiconductor element.For information on how to check the controller will be described below.When removing you need to disconnect the battery.Remove the wire that connects the voltage regulator with the output of the generator.Unscrew the two mounting screws, you can pull the enclosure.But the relay voltage regulator generator VAZ 2101 is an outdated design - it is mounted in the engine compartment, separate from the brush assembly.

Checking device

Checking relay control voltage generator VAZ 2106 "cents", the same cars.Once the withdrawal will generate a look at the brush - they must have a length of more than 5 mm.In the event that this parameter is different, it is necessary to carry out the replacement device.To make the diagnosis, need a constant voltage source.It is desirable to be able to change the output characteristic.The power supply can be used battery and a pair of AA batteries.Yet you need a lamp, it must operate from 12 volts.Instead, you can use a voltmeter.Plus the power plug from the socket of the voltage regulator.

Accordingly, the negative pin to the common plate of the device.A light bulb or a voltmeter connected to the brushes.In such a state must be present between the brushes voltage if the input is 12-13 volts.But if you apply the input is greater than 15 volts, the voltage between the brushes should not be.This is a sign of serviceability of the device.And it does not matter, diagnosed relay control voltage generator 2107, or another vehicle.If the warning lamp lights up when any voltage value or not light up, it means that there is a fault node.


The car's electrical system relay voltage regulator generator "Bosch" (as, indeed, any other firm) plays a very important role.How frequently monitor his condition, check for damage and defects.The event of failure of this device are not uncommon.In the best case discharged battery.At worst, it may increase the power supply to the on-board network.This will lead to the failure of the majority of consumers.Furthermore, it may be damaged and the generator.And the repairs will cost a pretty penny, but when you consider that the battery very quickly goes down, costs and space altogether.It should also be noted that the relay-control voltage generator Bosch is one of the leaders in sales.He has high reliability and durability, and the characteristics of maximum stability.