consider what constitutes destructional artillery system reserve of the High Command, which has no direct similarity in any army in the world.
experience of World War II, confirmed the need for large-caliber artillery capable of destroying fortifications.But it became apparent that the old patterns of heavy artillery can not meet the needs of today's dynamic fighting.Therefore, even during the war, forty-fourth year, the Soviet government gave the task to develop a 240-millimeter mortar Kolomna Design Bureau.
product received index M-240 and received by the Soviet Army in 1950.In contrast to the smaller caliber mortars it charges the 130-pound high-explosive fragmentation mine.Range of fire is eight kilometers away.However, the type of towed mortars caliber for the modern era of the Soviet army was the Cuban missile crisis represents the legacy.Self-propelled artillery "Tulip" made a new task for the designers of the Ural Transport Machine-Building Plant.
Urals is the system integrator of the project, working in cooperation with many factories and design bureaus of the USSR.Samu artillery system, which they were to be installed on its own chassis, created in the Permian "MZ".Originally intended to use the chassis SU-100, which is mounted on the gun mount."Tulip" was too heavy for such a platform, and poorly tolerated huge return shot.
Urals had to radically transform the original platform, creating a virtually new car.But this level of unification, which had a self-propelled gun "Tulip", has reached eighty percent with respect to the basic transport basis.The movement of the machine results in a diesel engine capacity of 520 horsepower, which allows it to disperse up to sixty kilometers per hour.The bow of the hull above the work area commander of a rotating turret, equipped with a 7.62-mm machine gun.
crew and calculation
combat vehicle crew of five men, which demonstrates the serious attitude of developers to the mechanization of the process of preparing to fire guns such caliber.The "Tulip" at the same time allows us to transport the entire calculation and Ammunition.In addition to the gun commander and driver, placed in the nose compartment of the car, she carries two operators and the gunner, which are located in the fighting compartment.In the transport position, they took seats next to mechanized combat pack transportable ammunition.When deploying the system to prepare for the opening of the fire crew members are placed according combat schedule.
developed based on the experience of creation and operation of the towed mortar M-240, a new system for the self-propelled chassis received index 2B8.Originally intended firing directly from the vehicle chassis.However terrible the return force of about five hundred tons, and the shock wave shot, crushes mounted fuel tanks, was forced to abandon this decision.As adopted a modified layout setting "Tulip" has two positions.In transport the mortar is on the crawler, but is fighting for his stern, sliding on the base plate, opёrtoy ground.
Translation tools from marching into the firing position by a hydraulic system.Power mortar made from the inside of the turret combat pack, which can contain up to twenty high-explosive mines or ten active and reactive.
before opening fire machine translation from the transport position into the firing.The "Tulip" by hydraulic actuators throws mortar back of the back of the machine and place it on the base plate.
Loading the mortar is carried out directly from boeukladki machine or from the ground.With the loading of boeukladki barrel turns ninety degrees, the operator sets the charge from the breech end of the barrel, and then the mortar is again in a position close to the vertical.For the calculation of ammunition from the ground can use the winch to install the 130- and 250-kilogram min.After charging the weapon induced by hand in horizontal angle.Aiming is carried vertically by means of a hydraulic system.The high level of mechanization of the process of bringing to combat readiness, charge and aiming to achieve an outstanding rate of allowed for the guns of this caliber.The "Tulip" is capable of firing at a rate of one shot per minute.
combat capabilities and ammunition
combat effectiveness of the system provides excellent mobility, ballistics, accuracy and range of used ammunition.The basis of ammunition are high-explosive mines weighing up to one hundred and thirty kilos, which can fire a range of up to ten kilometers.Also in the arsenal is rocket-assisted projectile, allows striking targets at a distance of twenty kilometers.The power of these charges is enormous.They leave behind a crater with a radius of ten meters and a depth of about six.Even the heavy fortifications type can not resist them.
missile launcher "Tulip" (photos can be seen in the article) can be used as high-precision weapons when firing guided missiles "Daredevil."They are induced by the reflected laser beam illumination purpose and enable application punches to a depth of five to ten kilometers.To engage manpower and area targets can be applied cluster and incendiary ammunition.Napalm charge installation 2S4 "Tulip" covers one hectare area, turning it into a continuous lake of fire.In addition to traditional equipment "Tulip" may use nuclear weapons and the capacity to two kilotons of TNT equivalent.
Statement adopted and serial production
Soviet Army self-propelled mortar 2S4 joined in 1971, replacing the towed model sample in 1955.In the mid eighties he went modernize and enhance its combat characteristics.Production of the product continued until 1988, and for the entire period of the release was made about six cars.The Soviet Union has put a number of mortars "Tulip" in Iraq, and Czechoslovakia.At the beginning of the two thousandth several samples were sent to Libya on an agreement with the Russian leadership.
Use in fighting the USSR
mortar 2S4 installation passed its first baptism of fire in Afghanistan as part of a limited contingent of Soviet troops.According to estimates of experts, in the battles in the area took part in one hundred and twenty weapons.By all accounts, it has proved to be exceptionally well in difficult conditions of the war.Highlands greatly complicates the use of artillery, firing point-blank range, and howitzers.Aviation is not always able to strike at the fortified settlements in mountain caves or on the slopes.The "Tulip" showed the highest efficiency, destroying enemy positions in one or two shots, regardless of how much they have been appointed.
Application in modern wars
Experience using mortars in Afghanistan in handy during the crackdown of terrorist and bandit formations in Chechnya.Similar conditions of conducting fights allowed to quickly find a suitable way to destroy the mountain positions terrorists.In addition to fighting in the field self-propelled mortar setting "Tulip" was used to assault settlements.Because it was conducted shelling fortified bunkers of bandits during the preparation of the storming of Grozny.
Unfortunately, biography combat system 2S4 "Tulip" includes episodes of participation in the civil war in Ukraine.For the first time it applied the troops subordinate Kiev regime during the assault Semyonovka in 2014.The exotic nature and rarity of this type of weapon caused that crater was not recognized immediately and caused a heated debate about weapons that could cause damage of such magnitude.Opinions inclined to believe that the crater left tactical ballistic missile.However, it worked, "tulip".