development of mankind has never experienced evenly, there were periods of stagnation and technological breakthroughs.Similarly, the story evolved and means of transmitting information.Interesting facts and discoveries in this sphere in the historical sequence presented in this article.Incredibly, something without which modern society is today its existence, humanity at the beginning of the twentieth century was considered impossible and fantastic and often absurd.
At the dawn of
Since the most ancient times to our era of humanity actively use sound and light as the main means of transmission of information, the history of their use has millennium.In addition to the various sounds with which our ancient ancestors warned tribesmen danger or summoned them to hunt, light also was an opportunity to bring important messages over long distances.For this purpose, signal fires, torches, burning spears, arrows, and other devices.Around the settlements outposts constructed with a signal fire to the danger did not catch people by surprise.A variety of information that needs to be passed, leading to the use of codes and a kind of auxiliary audio elements such as drums, whistles, gongs, horns and other animals.
use codes in the sea as a prototype telegraph
special development encoding received when moving through the water.When man first went to sea, and the first beacon.The ancient Greeks with certain combinations of the torches of messages sent through letters.Also in the sea to apply different shape and color signal flags.Thus, there was such a thing as a semaphore when using special provisions flags or lanterns could transmit different messages.These were the first attempts wiring.Later, there were missiles.Despite the fact that the history of the development of means of information transmission is not in place, and from the primitive times there was an incredible evolution of these means of communication in many countries and walks of life still have not lost their value.
first information storage
However, mankind worried not just communication tools.The history of its storage also goes back to the beginning of time.An example of this are the cave paintings in various ancient caves, because thanks to them can be seen on some aspects of life in ancient times.Methods for storing, recording and storage of information have evolved and replaced by drawings in caves came cuneiform track - hieroglyphs, and finally writing.We can say that from this moment begins the story of creation of means of information transfer on a global scale.
The invention of writing was the first information revolution in the history of mankind, as an opportunity to collect, distribute and transmit the knowledge to the next generation.Writing gave a powerful impetus to cultural and economic development of the civilizations that have mastered it before others.In the XVI century, the printing press was invented, which was a new wave of the information revolution.Now you can store large amounts of information, and it has become more affordable, so that the concept of "literacy" has become more widespread.This is a very important moment in the history of human civilization, because the book became the property is not only one country but the whole world.
mail as a means of communication began to be used before the invention of writing.Messengers passed initially oral reports.However, with the advent of the possibility to write a message in this type of communication has become even more popular.The couriers were originally on foot, later - the horse.In developed ancient civilizations has been well-established postal service on the basis of the relay.The first postal service originated in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.They are mostly used for military purposes.Egyptian postal system was one of the first and advanced, that the Egyptians first started using carrier pigeons.Later mail began to spread to other civilizations.
history of the development of communication quite naturally begins with the telegraph.The first option of wiring that came up with Democritus and Kleoksen (ancient Greek philosophers), was a flare, which was mentioned above.However, it did not catch on, and attempts to the invention of new types of wiring undertook various scientists from the beginning of the XVII century.
In 1793, optical telegraph was invented, which is a fundamentally new concept does not work on the basis of light.However, he needed new ways to transfer large amounts of information.And only thanks to the discovery of electromagnetic waves appeared this kind of long-distance communication, as the electric telegraph.Later, he invented an electrostatic and electrochemical devices.
arrow-type electromagnetic telegraph appeared in 1832 thanks to the efforts Russian scientist PL Schilling, and electro was patented in 1840 by Samuel Morse, who invented a special telegraphic code.In 1939 BS Jacobi invented the first writing, and in 1850 - the first teleprinter.
phone as a result of an unusual experiment
Next comes the appearance of your phone as a new communication tools.Its history begins with 1837, when Charles Page, an American scientist, designed a "nagging wire" - the prototype of the future of the phone.More than an approximate version created in 1860 school physics teacher from Germany Philipp Reis.But his apparatus can transmit only individual sounds distorted.At home Reis invention is not appreciated, and he went to the States, where he was arrested on charges of quackery, because the Americans were convinced of the impossibility of voice over wires.But the future creator of the first real phone AG Bell, a teacher at a school for the deaf, got acquainted with the work of the flights.He wanted to create on its basis the apparatus to the sounds turned into light signals, to teach deaf children to speak.As a result, a completely random way, he created and patented his phone 14 February 1876.According to Bell himself, he was able to create such a device just because it did not know the laws of electrical engineering."Handset Bell" - the prototype of the usual for us system - was created in 1878.
Creation of radio as a means of transmitting information.The history of the foundations of wireless
American Mahlon Loomis in 1868 introduced the first prototype of a wireless link, the length of it was about 22 km.That he considered the possibility of establishing an international wireless real, provided that humanity can learn how to use electricity from the atmosphere.Loomis said on the airwaves, the existence of which was confirmed by Heinrich Hertz only after 19 years.
Loomis ideas have been implemented by AS Popov, who developed the world's first radio, the scientists presented the minds of the St. Petersburg University April 25, 1895 (Old Style May 7).A May 24, 1896 there was a transfer of the world's first radio message text consisting of two words "Heinrich Hertz".It was a tribute to Popov's grand opening of the German scientist.By the way, the idea of using wireless communications to ships operating to transfer messages and distress suggested Popov.
end of XIX century became a powerful third wave of the information revolution, because it became possible to transmit information at any distance because of telegraph, telephone and radio.
Television and satellite
May 9, 1911 Russian scientist BL Rosing first demonstrated the public image of a simple real estate figures represented on the screen of the kinescope.American Charles Jenkins in 1923 carried out the transfer of the moving image.But these were examples of mechanical television.However, only in 1928 the inventors JF Belyanskiy and BP Grabowski conducted the transfer of experience moving image using a cathode ray tube, which is considered the inception of modern television.The invention iconoscope in 1931 was a breakthrough in achieving clarity of images.Since 1934, the German TV channel DRF was the first in history to broadcast regular electronic television.Since 1936, in the UK there was a high-definition television, and in 1938 began regular television broadcasts in the USSR.
From the middle of the twentieth century history of storage facilities, transmission and processing of information received a new round of the giant.The idea satellite was launched in 1945 by Englishman Arthur C. Clarke, and already October 4, 1957 in the Soviet Union with the help of the carrier rocket launched the first artificial Earth satellite.From that moment began the space age development.Sputnik was the first cosmic object, which receives information from the world.The first satellite was just over half a meter in diameter and weighed only 83 kg.In the future satellite system received enormous development and was used for various spheres of human activity: relay television, radio navigation, and more.
Recent history data transmission means
paging, cellular, fiber-optic communication lines - all steps towards the creation of a global communications network.Creating a computer was an important, but an intermediate step.This microprocessor-based systems have revolutionized the methods of transmitting information.Digital communication has made those changes, through which information has become a key element of modern society.Network conquered the world and has become an integral part of all its spheres: politics, education, the arts and industry.Geographical scope proved to be blurred, because the network instantly connects people at opposite poles of the planet in seconds.This is a giant step in the development of data transmission.