Until now, there are disputes about the status of the Caspian Sea.The fact that, despite their common name, it is still the world's largest terminal lake.Sea it was called because of the features that has the structure of the bottom.It is formed by oceanic crust.In addition, the water in the Caspian Sea salt.Like the sea, where there are often storms and strong winds that raise high waves.
Geography The Caspian Sea is located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe.In its form it resembles one of the letters of the alphabet - S. From south to north sea stretches for 1,200 km, and from east to west - from 195 to 435 km.
territory of the Caspian Sea is not uniform in their physical and geographical conditions.In this connection it conventionally divided into three parts.These include the North and Middle and South Caspian.
Which countries washed by the Caspian Sea?There are only five:
- Russia, located in the north-west and west.The coastline of the state along the Caspian Sea is 695 km.Here are located a part of Russia Kalmykia, Dagestan and Astrakhan region.
- Kazakhstan.This country on the Caspian Sea, located in the east and northeast.The length of its coastline is 2,320 km.
- Turkmenistan.Map of Caspian states indicates that the country is on the south-east of the water basin.The length along the shore line of 1,200 km.
- Azerbaijan.This state, stretching along the Caspian Sea at 955 km, bordering its shores in the southwest.
- Iran.Map of Caspian states indicates that the country is located on the southern shores of undrained Lake.The length of its maritime borders is 724 km.
Caspian - Sea?
To date, the dispute is not settled on what to call this unique body of water.And the answer to this question is important.The fact that all countries in the Caspian Sea in the region have their own interests.However, the question of how to divide this huge body of water, the five governments can not decide for a long time.The main dispute turned around here.Caspian Sea - it's still a sea or a lake?And the answer is not more interested geographers.First, he needed to politicians.This is due to the application of international law.
Caspian states such as Kazakhstan and Russia, believe that their borders in the region are washed by the sea.In this regard, representatives of the two countries insist on the application of the UN Convention, adopted in 1982, it concerns maritime law.The provisions of this document states that coastal states assigned The twelve water zone along its borders.In addition, the country has a right to economic marine area.It is located at a distance of two hundred miles.There is at the seaside state of law and the continental shelf.However, even the widest part of the Caspian Sea is narrower than the international documents away.In such a case, it may be applied the principle of the median line.This littoral states with the greatest extension of the coastal border will get a large sea territory.
Iran in this regard the opinion otherwise.Its members believe that the Caspian Sea should be divided fairly.In this case, all the countries will get twenty percent of marine territory.Tehran's position is understandable.With this decision the government will manage the issue more area than the fission of the sea in the middle of the line.
However Caspian every year significantly changes its water level.It is not possible to determine the middle of the line and divide the territory between the states.Caspian Sea countries such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement with each other, defining the bottom of the zones in which the parties will exercise their economic rights.Thus, on the northern sea areas achieved certain legal truce.Southern countries of the Caspian Sea to a single decision has yet been reached.However, they do not recognize the agreements reached northern neighbors.
Caspian Sea - Lake?
Proponents of this view based on the fact that the body of water, located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, is closed.In this case, it can not be applied to the document on the rules of international maritime law.Proponents of this theory believe that he was right, referring to the fact that the Caspian Sea is no natural connection with the waters of the oceans.But this raises another difficulty.If the lake is the Caspian Sea, on the borders of some international norms must be determined on its expanses of water?Unfortunately, these documents have not yet been developed.The fact that the issues of international lakes anywhere by anyone not discussed.
Caspian Sea - a unique body of water?
addition to the above there is another, a third point of view, belongs to this wonderful body of water.Her supporters are of the opinion that the Caspian Sea should be recognized as international waters belonging equally to all bordering countries.In their view, the resources of the region are subject to joint operation with a pond bordering countries.
Caspian countries make every effort to resolve all existing differences.And in this regard it may be noted positive developments.One of the steps towards solving the problems of the Caspian region, was the agreement signed 18.11.2010 between all five countries.It relates to issues of cooperation in the security sphere.In this document, the country agreed to work together to eliminate terrorism in the region, drug trafficking, smuggling, poaching, money laundering and so on. D.
Particular attention is paid to environmental issues.That land, on which the Caspian states and Eurasia - the region is under threat of industrial pollution.Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan dump waste into the waters of the Caspian Sea from the exploration and production of energy.Moreover, in these countries there is a large number of abandoned oil wells that have not exploited because of their loss, but nevertheless continue to have adverse effects on the environment.As for Iran, he throws in sea water waste from agriculture and wastewater.Russia threatens ecology of the region industrial pollution.This is due to the economic activity that unfolded in the area of the Volga.
in the Caspian Sea Countries have made progress in addressing environmental problems.So, from 12.08.2007, the region has the power Framework convection, which sets the goal of protection of the Caspian Sea.The document developed provisions for the protection of biological resources and the management of human impacts on the aquatic environment.According to this convection, the parties must interact in conducting activities to improve the ecological situation in the Caspian Sea.
In 2011 and 2012, all five countries have signed and other documents important for the protection of the marine environment.Among them:
- protocol on cooperation, regional preparedness and response at the onset of the cases, leading to oil pollution.
- Protocol relating to the protection of the region by pollution from land-based sources.
Development pipeline construction
Today in the Caspian region is another unresolved problem.It concerns the gas pipeline Nabucco.This idea is an important strategic task of the West and the United States, who continue to look for sources of energy, alternative to Russian.That is why in dealing with this issue the parties do not apply to countries such as Kazakhstan, Iran and, of course, the Russian Federation.Brussels and Washington Used statement of the President of Turkmenistan made in Baku on 18.11.2010, at the summit of the Caspian littoral countries.He has expressed the official position of Ashgabat concerning pipeline.The Turkmen authorities believe that the project should be implemented.At the same time its consent to the construction of the pipeline should be given only to those States, in the bottom of the territories which it will be located.And that Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan.Iran and Russia have opposed this position and the project itself.However, they were guided by the protection of the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea.To date, the construction of the pipeline is not conducted because of the differences of the project participants.
the first summit
countries on the Caspian Sea are constantly looking for ways to solve problems, pressing the Eurasian region.To this end, organized a special meeting of their representatives.Thus, the first summit of the Caspian littoral states was held in April 2002. The venue was the Ashgabat.However, the results of this meeting fell short of expectations.The summit was considered a failure because of the requirements of Iran's sea territory division into 5 equal portions.This is categorically opposed to other countries.Their representatives defend their own point of view that the size of the national water areas should correspond to the length which is the coastline of the state.
unsuccessful and the summit provoked a dispute between Ashgabat and Baku on supplies three oil fields located in the center of the Caspian Sea.As a result, the head of the five states have not developed a consensus on any of all the issues raised.However, it concluded an agreement to hold a second summit.He was to be held in 2003 in Baku.
second Caspian summit
Despite the agreement, the planned conduct an annual meeting was adjourned.At the second summit of heads of Caspian states gathered only 16.10.2007 The venue became Tehran.The sides discussed topical issues concerning the legal status of a unique body of water, which is the Caspian Sea.The boundaries of the waters in the framework of this section have been agreed in the drafting of a new convention.We were raised as issues of security, ecology, economy and cooperation among riparian countries.In addition, the results of work that the state held the first summit.In Tehran, the representatives of the five states have outlined the ways for future cooperation in the region.
Meeting at the Third Summit
Once again, the head of the Caspian littoral countries met in Baku 18.11.2010 The results of the summit was the signing of an agreement on enhancing cooperation on security issues.During the meeting it was pointed out that some of the country washed by the Caspian Sea, and only need to provide counter-terrorism, transnational crime, proliferation of weapons and so on. D.
Once again, the Caspian states have raised their concerns in Astrakhan09.29.2014 At the meeting of the presidents of the five countries signed another statement.
It recorded an exclusive right side of the coastal countries in the Caspian region to place the armed forces.But at the meeting the status of the Caspian Sea has not been finally adjusted.