Gingival recession: causes and treatment.

gingival recession - is insidious and rather unpleasant disease.Timely detection of the causes of diseases, good treatment gives it the ability to return a dazzling smile and forget about the problem.In this article we look at why developing the disease, according to the principles of how it is classified experts, today used surgical techniques and their effectiveness in practice.


recession - a pathological change in the level of the surface of the tooth with respect to the gums.As a result of this process is its direct exposure of.Disease entails not only an aesthetic problem, but also the development of different kinds of pathologies.These include increased sensitivity of enamel, wedge-shaped defects, and other tooth decay.At a young age the disease is diagnosed relatively rare (approximately 10% of patients).In most cases, it appears in middle and old age (95%).

gingival recession is ranked in the category of diseases that negatively affect the aesthetics of the person, but also on the psycho-emotional state of a person.Bare roots of the teeth, clearly visible in the smile, greatly understate self-esteem, cause difficulties in communication, negative impact on social adaptation.The more pronounced the pathology, the greater the psychological uncertainty man.

main causes of the disease

Causes of this disease are varied.Here are just a few of them.

  1. Tartar and plaque.In the context of a particular anatomical structure of the mouth and gums plaque insufficient width results in a gradual displacement of the epithelium.
  2. anatomical specificity of the so-called alveolar bone.In some cases, the teeth with massive roots have a thin layer of cortical bone.In such a situation, the blood supply to the vestibular part of it is carried out to the extent necessary.If the blood vessels of the periosteum in this area are damaged, the cortical bone is lost with time.The site of attachment of the tooth to the gum gradually formed a slit-like defect, and with it develops and gum recession.No operation in such a situation can not do.
  3. Wrong / intermittent oral care may exacerbate the recession.From mechanical damage to the gums while brushing teeth overactive deteriorating condition of the gums, which provokes different kinds of diseases.Use the subject to maintain oral hygiene should take special care.
  4. mechanical damage, after which there is a dislocation of the tooth, or there is misuse of his position, also require the removal of gingival recession.
  5. orthodontic treatments often have to develop the pathology.Applying pressure to bias the teeth during treatment over time may lead to a thinning of the bone or gum tissue.Furthermore, under the orthodontic appliances are often accumulated plaque, which also may cause inflammation.
  6. The occurrence of arsenic in the gums in the event of improper location of a dentist can hurt the surface and cause disease.
  7. Inflammation in the gums (gingivitis, periodontitis).
  8. Improper attachment upper / lower lip frenulum.

How does the disease?

There are several types of this disease, each of which has distinct clinical manifestations.However, there are common to all forms of the disease symptoms:

  • Reducing the gum.
  • bare root of the tooth.
  • Increased sensitivity to thermal and chemical stimuli.
  • formation of caries.

Classification of gingival recession

severity the disease is divided into mild, moderate and severe.In the first case the gum is lowered maximally 3 mm.In severe form, this parameter can exceed the mark of 5 mm.

Depending on the degree of coverage of the oral cavity is a local recession and generalized.By way of the disease distinguish visible and hidden (diagnosed by sensing) option.

Traumatic recession

most often develops in patients under 30 years, mostly on the front surface of the teeth.Bare root reaches 1-2 mm, certainly accompanied by increased sensitivity of soft tissue and cosmetic defects.Signs of inflammation are extremely rare.

Symptomatic recession

develop at any age to the lingual and buccal surfaces of the teeth.In patients aged approximately 35 years of the disease process can be observed in the interdental spaces of the gums.

disease occurs as a result of poor oral hygiene, leading to the appearance of dental plaque and many diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis).Gingival recession is accompanied by bleeding, swelling, suppuration, loosening of the teeth.The role of the causes of the disease often appears traumatic treatment of caries.

Physiological recession

is diagnosed mainly in elderly patients as a result of periodontal senescence.Exposed roots visible to the naked eye.Teeth preserve stability, inflammation of soft tissues appears very rarely.

Indications for elimination recession

  1. request of the patient.
  2. overly sensitive enamel.
  3. Preparing for orthopedic treatment.
  4. likely to develop caries.
  5. progressive gum recession.

necessary treatment

therapy of this disease is necessary because the recession may progress and cause very unpleasant complications.

Treatment typically involves surgical intervention.It allows you to restore the contour of the gums and close bare root.According to the classification of diseases prevalent today at Miller, surgical treatment option to be not every case.When the recession classes I and II the probability of complete closure of the root surface is very high.When the disease Class III 100% to close the root surface is not possible.Gingival recession on the Miller class IV can not be surgically manipulated.


To cope with the disease and eliminate cosmetic defects visible, experts strongly recommend promptly seek qualified help.Surgical methods allow you to restore the contours of the gums and close the exposed roots of the teeth.At present, widely used in practice the following options for surgery:

  1. method of lateral flap.The flap on the leg is taken in the "donor" areas adjacent to the affected area.Plastic gingival recession this method is carried out when the soft tissues adjacent to the tooth have the necessary amount of material.During the operation the doctor takes the flap with the gums or palate.This method of treatment is relevant for localized and generalized type of the disease.The operation is performed using local anesthesia options.Originally a specialist removes existing inflammation and removes dental plaque.Then comes the process of formation of the flap.At the final stage of its sewn.The main advantage of the lateral flap - effective enforcement of the recovery period due to the 100% coincidence of the soft tissues of the oral cavity.The only drawback of the procedure, according to experts, is a manifestation of a little discomfort in the area, which took the donor site.It is possible improper healing of the flap on the surface.
  2. Nerezorbiruemye membrane - a classic operation.Gingival recession eliminated without serious complications.The operation consists of two stages.Initially, the doctor sets the membrane.Thanks to their high rigidity they exclude the probability of re-treatments.After a certain time they should be removed.According to statistics, this kind of operation is characterized by high efficiency.Restoration of damaged tissue is not observed in the full amount (up to 73% of the inflamed areas).Doctors do not recommend this resort to treatment options for patients diagnosed with gum recession.
  3. Treatment with recovery capacities of some of the biological elements.The components of these funds are the specific sets of elements that contribute to the rapid formation of new healthy tissue.As a rule, use enzymes and proteins amelogenin element.These compounds contribute to the formation of healthy gums and enamel reconstructing the roots of the teeth.Applying enamel matrix designed to form solid structures on the surface of the affected gingiva.

non-invasive methods

Treatment of gingival recession collagen - a conservative treatment option of the disease.This approach to treatment is recommended only in the early stages of the disease, when the roots have not much bare.Moreover, collagen gives excellent results in the case, if the recession is a consequence of inflammatory processes.With this agent added to the gum tissue, it is possible to achieve aesthetic improvement of the appearance of the affected area, close the stripped portion of the tooth to avoid negative feedback.

Preventive measures should not ignore such diseases as gum recession.Treatment must be prescribed by a doctor on the basis of the causes of pathology and its forms of development.In order to prevent its occurrence, experts recommend to take advantage of relatively simple prevention tips.

The first step is to promptly treat caries since it was he who acts as the main cause of this disease.Equally important are regular visits to the dentist for preventive purposes.The sooner the doctor diagnoses the problem, the easier it is to eliminate it with minimal impact to health.

should not prevent injuries and bleeding gums.Possible malocclusion is recommended to correct the most gentle procedures periodically strengthen enamel through remineralizes therapy.Particular attention should be paid to quality oral hygiene: brush your teeth, do not use too stiff brush.

Conclusion This article provides detailed information about the widespread disease such as gum recession.Reviews of the methods presented here there are a variety of treatment.Some patients say about the positive results after conservative therapy.Others talk about the rapid recovery of the affected area after treatment by surgery.In any case, a specific treatment option can offer only the doctor after examination of the patient, determine the nature of the disease and its forms.

Closing gingival recession in the early stages is much faster and easier than in advanced cases.If time does not ask for help to a specialist, the treatment will be long and very painful.That is why at the first signs is so important not to postpone the visit to the doctor.

We hope that all the submitted information in this article will be really useful for you.Be healthy!