Where we lived homeless in pre-revolutionary Moscow

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A century ago, the city is actively operate dozens of charities.No wonder the white-stone is called "All-Russian almshouse": the poor flocked here from all over the empire in hopes of somehow feed themselves in a rich and generous Moscow.

It started with Peter

charity and encouraged, and sometimes initiated by the Russian authorities.Peter I in 1701 ordered the establishment of 60 almshouses from parish churches, and in 1718 the king has forbidden to give alms in hand, demanding to distribute aid through almshouses.

for illegitimate and street children had special shelters.One of them - the Foundling Hospital (Moskvoretskaya nab., 5/9), built on the banks of the Moscow River by Charles Blanc in the second half of the XVIII century., Was the largest in Europe.It was intended for orphans, foundlings and homeless.Catherine II herself has made 100 thous. Rubles.and each year added 50 thousand. But the wise Empress had managed to organize a "competition" between their approximate that donations become a leader in Prokofy Demidov (200 thous. rubles. personal money), even on the front portrait of D. Levitsky depicted in the background Orphanage.Not far behind the private secretary of Catherine Demidov Ivan Betskoi (distributed more than 160 thousand. Rub.).It is known in the days of the occupation of Moscow Napoleon House chief superintendent Ivan Tutolmin managed to place in the assigned institution of the French wounded, so 13 French gendarmes guarding the house from fire.In the neighborhood he alone survived.

Count Nikolai Sheremetev in memory of his dead wife, the famous Praskovya Kovaleva-Zhemchugovoy, built a hospice (Sukharevskaya B. Sq., 3) to alleviate the plight of the suffering.This project is a graph spent incredible amount - 3 million rubles.Shelter and care in a stately mansion, built on the project and alter Sheremeteva architect Giacomo Quarenghi, gained 140 people.Over a hundred years of the existence of a home for pilgrims spent 6 million rubles., And blessings benefited more than two million people.Today, the former Sheremetev Hospital became a Sklif - Institute of Emergency Care.Sklifosovsky, one of the leading medical institutions in the country.

already in the XIX century.Alexander II's wife Maria Alexandrovna founded the welfare of the wounded and sick soldiers.The initiative monarchs initially picked elite aristocratic family, and later merchants.

for the elderly war veterans deprived of any benefits from the treasury at the expense of honorary citizen Theodore Gorshkov built Mykolayiv poorhouse, later renamed Izmailovo nursing home (Izmailovsky pr., 4).

And Passionate parkway empty for a long time at the risk of their physical existence monument of classicism and Moscow Charity - Building New Catherine Hospital (Holy blvd., 15/29).It was originally intended for the prisoners and laborers, and after moving to the city hospital began to take all comers.

dropped out almost a hundred years

Since 1894 began to open "urban welfare of the poor", whose main task was to help the poor at home.But apart from her in charge of the new institution proved to be shelters, lodging houses and other charitable institutions.In 1908, 33 thousand. Times given the poor cash benefits, as well as provided medical and legal assistance, providing food, clothing and footwear, employment in workshops given orders and the means of production.On private money and built schools.For example, Theodore Nabilkov donated funds to build the school Imperial Philanthropic Society.It grew on the 1st Meshchanskaya (now Mira) 50. It was one of the best business schools in Moscow.

famous millionaire industrialist and a generous patron Savva Morozov is publicly Art Theatre has built under the old maternity hospital, Catherine Hospital (ul. Shchepkina 61/2), donated to the treatment and training of mentally ill students.By the early twentieth century.the fifth generation of the Morozov invested personal savings into the hospitals, houses of charity (giving blood for the elderly and the poor), and doss houses.Besides Morozov earned thousand rubles (then the ruble, we recall, it was a much "tighter" and the dollar and the pound sterling and the Swiss franc) voluntarily gave to the needs of the poor, the widows, and the terminally ill and Bakhrushins Khludovs, Naydenova and Botkin, Rukavishnikova and Prokhorov ...

Savely Kashnitsky

Photo source: street-moscow.ru

Articles Source: aif.ru