Grapes exposed to various bacterial, viral and fungal diseases.In addition, it damages various pests.The average annual loss grape harvest due to diseases and pests is about 30%, and in low-quality or untimely carrying out the necessary protective measures - and more than 40-50%.In this article we will talk about such pests as ticks.
Grape felt tick tick: Understanding
on grape plants can parasitize up to 70 a variety of species of ticks, but the most common of these is the grape tick.The naked eye it is almost impossible to discern.Felt grape tick tick refers to one of the representatives of the four-legged ticks eriofoidnyh.It can be found almost everywhere cultivated grapes.He lives mostly on the leaves, at least - on the inflorescence.
body of an adult female worm-like cylindrical shape.Color - milk white or yellowish.Length - 0,17-0,21 mm.The male a little less - up to 0.14 mm.A guard at the pest triangular with many longitudinal lines.On the back of the panel are a few bristles.On the belly there are many rings with microscopic spikes.
overwinter females, hiding in crevices of the bark, under bud scales, in fallen leaves.In one kidney can sometimes be right about 1000 mites.In the spring, when the buds start blooming, they come to the activity and to migrate.Pests spread by wind, birds and insects.
During the shoot growth mites are moving in the budding leaves, attach themselves to them from the bottom side and begin actively feeding.Substances present in the saliva of grape pest actively cause deformation of the cell division and leaf tissues.Under the influence of enzymes, which highlights the tick, the most active in the centers of their power on the leaves appear concave oval portions, covered with white thick felt layer.Accordingly, the upper side of the sheet crown can be observed.
When mass outbreaks grape mite affects a significant portion of the leaves on the bush, which change color and become red-brown.The growth of leaves is broken, photosynthesis is reduced, some of them wither and die off, and the development of the vines generally inhibited.If pest affected inflorescence, petals sealed, begin to redden and peel off.If
with grape mites do not lead an active struggle, it can lead to a strong decrease in the harvest.Giving preference to the best grapes that are resistant to the mite Felt.
tick on grapes: control measures
In case of single nests ticks on 1 or 2 sheets of paper can be a break and take over the territory of the vineyard.If it affects a large number of leaves without a focused and active struggle against these pests simply can not do.It is not necessary to break off all the affected grape leaves, as this can cause much more damage to the bush than its cause mites.
Inexperienced winegrowers often try to combat pests with the help of such universal tools such as Bordeaux mixture, but the results of such measures is zero, because it is a fungicide that can only cope well with plant diseases.
What if the tick has appeared on grapes?Measures to combat them in the following:
- After autumn leaf fall head sleeves and every bush vines should carefully sprinkle 5% lime broth.If this is not done in the autumn, spring, before bud break, vineyard sprayed with 7% emulsion karboleniuma.
- early spring until the buds blossomed, a good result can give the spraying solution "DNOC."
- When the shoots reach 5 cm, can use a tool from rust mite as colloidal sulfur.
- In the case of a mass outbreak of ticks (5 individuals per 1 sheet) in summer pest control is carried out insectoacaricide and acaricide.
- During the growing season the struggle with grape mites can be conducted using "phosphamide", "phosalone", "Pliktrana", "Omayta", "Talstara", "Mitaka", "Apollo", "Ortus" and others.
In the treatment of vine leaves should be considered a moment.The drug need only be applied to the leaves from the bottom.This is done as follows: sprayer nozzle placed against the surface of the earth and slowly lift up, treating the inside of the infected leaves.Only in this way you can get to the pest.Carrying top treatment ineffective.About the impact of spraying can be judged by the absence of new lesions on the leaves.Sometimes it is holding a treatment, but usually need 2-3 to finally destroyed tick on grape leaves.
In traditional literature recommended organophosphorus pesticides.However, many grape ticks to this group of chemicals has developed immunity.If you increase the dose, it is bad for plants and edible crops.
A good alternative is a drug "Envidor" based on spirodiclofen.It is not so toxic to humans and thus is effective enough against ticks.
also possible to apply the formulations the avermectin group, especially when harvesting to have no more than 20-30 days.
agricultural practices to combat
When the plant appeared mite felt grape, control measures should be applied and agronomic: timely pruning vines and remove old leaves, trunks and clean the hoses from the old bark.
Spider mites grape grape
This mite is more dangerous than a tick, as if his appearance is rapidly dying leaves.He settles on the bottom side of the leaf, it pierces the skin and sucks the juice.First, in the puncture site appear yellow spots, which grow and coalesce into larger spots.On the upper side of the leaf turns yellow or brown - depending on the grape variety.When mass settlement mite in early July, the leaves begin to die slowly, which greatly affects the crop.
Spider mite releases saliva, which turns into a thin web.In it are the eggs laid by the females, and young larvae.Pests overwinter under the bark of many years of grape sleeves.Lay eggs and feed they start at bud break.Spider mites multiply massively and quickly.One female for 10 days can lay up to 100 eggs.With favorable weather conditions for the pest may develop up to 7 or 8 generations during the growing season.
Due to the small size and weight of the tick is able to be transported by the wind.Pest control because of the protective web of very difficult.Furthermore, inconvenient processing grapes because of the location of mites on the bottom side of the sheet.
methods to combat spider mites
methods of struggle are the same as in the case with felt-mite, but need more frequent intervals spraying.In addition, it is not recommended to put next to the vine ornamental flowers, because they are very often found spider mites that are sure to pass on the vine.
Grape bud mite
It can be found in virtually every area of viticulture.Females overwinter in little eyes at the base of the scales on the rudimentary leaves main and replacement kidney.Activation time and began feeding ticks to the period of the spring sap flow, when the average temperature is 7-8 degrees Celsius.The appearance of the eggs takes place in the first half of May.
This grape mite is most common in the southern regions of viticulture.Females overwinter in the cracks of bark and under the bud scales.Activated when the average air temperature of 7-8 degrees, and migrate to the young leaves.During the growing season can develop 5 to 11 generations.