Before the construction should be determined by the required thickness of the walls, matched the type of masonry and material.These issues can confound any novice builder, given the huge variety of materials and the presence of various methods of masonry.
most important consideration when selecting the thickness of the walls is economically motivated.To accurately calculate the parameters of sufficient wall thickness should determine the parameters of future construction, heated area, design life, mode of living, the type and efficiency of the heating system.
Highlights when selecting masonry
In determining the nature of future laying recommended to pay attention to the following factors:
- estimated load on the wall.It depends primarily on the number of storeys of the building.
- climatic conditions.Along with the necessary strength of the walls, must be carried out the requirements of thermal insulation.
- aesthetic component.Wall thickness of small look more attractive in comparison with the same masonry in two and a half brick.
economic background of choosing the thickness of the walls
absolutely unreasonable is the construction, when the thickness of the wall is over 38 cm. To keep the heat in this case, the various methods of thermal insulation by means of insulating materials.
often used in low-rise building lightweight masonry.Such a method involves placing several walls in two rows at a distance from each other about a half-brick.Creating an air layer plays a role in this case the effective thermal insulator.If desired the cavity can be filled with any suitable insulating material.
Bearing brick walls
With proper implementation of the settlement, which results in a uniform load distribution, the wall thickness of one brick has the highest load capacity.Thickening of the walls due to higher thermal insulation properties resulting in the need for laying a solid foundation, which affects the increase in planned expenditures.
Persist aesthetically attractive brick wall thickness can be felt through the use of insulators.In the case of mounting heat retention indicators increases by about 30%.When used as insulation foam can achieve an increase in the thermal insulation efficiency of 2-3.
Improve the insulating properties of the supporting walls at the level of 10-15% allows the use of other less costly insulators:
- solution based on the slag or fine aggregate.
When you create a solid masonry advisable to install insulation on the inside or the outside.In this case, the stored minimum thickness of a brick wall.
For indicators thickness of bearing walls of the most modern, innovative type of brick, it can be almost any.And in this case, the balancing of the heat is almost independent of the presence of insulation.
Thickness of internal brick walls
For laying the interior walls is mainly used brick.Sufficient thickness of the inner wall of such a material is not more than 25 cm. In cases when the wall is increased load permitted to use reinforcing structures.
If we talk about the internal partitions of minimum length and a half meters, is sufficient in a half-brick masonry.In this case, the thickness of the walls will be 12 cm. An alternative embodiment is a quarter-brick masonry - 6.5 cm.
In cases where baffles have a length of 1.5 m, to improve the bearing properties appropriate to apply the reinforcement.It uses steel reinforcement diameter of 2 to 5 mm.Reinforcing material is placed approximately every 3 rows of bricks.
Currently, the following types of bricks:
Parameters single bricks are: 250 x 12 x 65 mm.The wide use material was introduced at the beginning of the last century.Later actively used as alternatives have become sesquicarbonates and double bricks.These solutions were more effective in terms of costs in the construction of capital facilities.
Calculate what should be the minimum thickness of the wall, it can be an example.When the brick masonry 2.5 best option would be the use of double bricks for walls and bricks during the laying of the remaining 0.5 cm of the wall.Application to implement a similar plan single brick improves material flow at about 25 to 35%.
Another important factor, which determines the thickness of the brick serves as an indicator of its thermal conductivity.According to this characteristic, the wall in a half-brick building materials lose much smaller thickness, for example, wood.
thermal conductivity of a solid standard brick is about 0.7 W / MOS.Several lower figure can be through the use of hollow bricks.However, along with a reduction in the thermal conductivity, it becomes obvious disadvantage is decrease in the strength of structures.
Possible causes thickening of the walls of brick
reason for thickening the brickwork becomes a need to improve the insulation and thermal properties of the structure.This is due to the peculiarities may be the location of the building.For example, its construction near the airport, the busy road junctions, construction in the region with a particular climate.
rather high thermal conductivity of bricks necessitates the use of different options to improve the insulation of buildings.To create a comfortable environment in a residential structure in our climatic conditions, sufficient wall thickness should be about 20 cm. The use of heavy brick entail an additional burden on the foundation and increase the construction budget.
options to improve the thermal insulation of brick walls
- Increasing the thickness of the walls by performing masonry brick 2.
- Creation of ventilated facades by stacking lumber, special insulation panels, siding, bricks.
- Standard insulation of facades due to their wall plaster.
- features brick walls heaters inside.On a layer of insulation vapor barrier must necessarily overlap layer, and then the interior of the room.
wall thickness in prefabricated houses
standard thickness of the walls of the panel-type buildings of 14 and 18 cm. Some organizations use building panel thickness up to 22 cm from the first to the fifth floor, thereby increasing bearing qualities of the building.Thus, no matter what the thickness of the panel wall, compulsorily applies the reinforcing armature.
As for bearing internal partitions in buildings of this type, here they come in thicknesses from 8 cm. Sometimes, to create internal partitions Gas silicate materials are used.The thickness of the silicate walls in prefabricated houses is identical to the above values.As is the case with the construction of concrete walls, partitions are also applied from the valve.
In some prefabricated houses are assembled thickened outer walls up to 38 cm, which contributes to the thermal insulation properties of the floors.Sometimes the walls are made of concrete or claydite-concrete sandwich with an inner layer of foam.
thickness of the walls of the blocks
In the case of using as the main building material thickness of the foam blocks bearing walls is not dependent on the number of storeys of the future building.Defines the parameters on which depends the thickness of the walls, here is the thermal conductivity.This value depends on the grade of material used and singularities wall structure.
thickness of load-bearing walls of the foam blocks with brick veneer:
- Material grade 600 - 450 mm thickness.
- Material grade 800 - 680 mm thickness.
- Material Grade 1000 - the thickness of 940 mm.
masonry with stucco:
- Material grade 600 - 480 mm thickness.
- Material grade 800 - 720 mm thickness.
- Material Grade 1000 - 1000 mm thickness.
technology performance is similar to the brick masonry foam blocks.In essence, the foam block is in the same brick, but only with some differences in the parameters.When installing the walls of concrete blocks held together with cement mortar.
laying the material in several rows is uneconomic, as blocks, due to the porous internal structure itself has an excellent thermal insulation properties.
obvious underlying reason for the construction of the walls of the foam blocks is the low weight of the material, despite some awkwardness.In general, the unique qualities of foam blocks make it possible not only to save on reducing the thickness of the walls, but also save money when laying the foundation.