power power plant - the largest in Russia.She also is the sixth hydroelectric power in the world.Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station located in Khakassia, on the Yenisei River, near Sayanogorsk.
composition structures of the station
main object of the station is the arch-gravity dam made of concrete, with a height of 245 meters and a length of 1066 meters.The width of the base of the dam - 110 meters, and 25 meters on the ridge.The dam can be divided into four parts.Left-bank and right-bank part of the blind length, respectively, 246 m and 298 m of the spillway length of 190 meters, and station - 332 meters.
a dam adjacent to the dam powerhouse.
not finished object - shore spillway, which is in the construction phase (commissioned in 2011).
Before the accident occurred in 2009, the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station generates 15% of the electrical energy produced by hydropower plants in Russia and 2% of the country's electricity.
power power plant - 6,400 MW.Power Plant - the flagship of the domestic hydropower.Given Mainsky hydro power power plant is 6721 MW.The average annual station gives the country 24.5 billion kWh.Maximum development was achieved in 2006 when a major summer flood has allowed the station to produce 26.8 billion kWh of electricity.
Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is one of the highest in the world.Reliability, allowing it to withstand water pressure, achieved 60 per cent own weight and 40 percent through the use of the upper arch belt which transfers the load on the coastal rocks.For this purpose, during the construction of the dam crashed into a rock on the left bank of 15 meters and on the right bank of 10 meters.With the foundation of the dam bed is associated and by tapping to a depth of 5 meters.This innovative design made it possible to use less than 20% the amount of concrete structures in comparison with gravity.
Indoors hydroelectric placed ten hydroelectric generators with capacity of 640 MW each.The dam is unique, like arch-gravity type structure in Russia there is only one Gergebilskaya HPP, but its capacity is much smaller than the one that has the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.Yenisei River allows for significantly more power than the river Karakoysu.
Currently spillway dam has a capacity of 13,600 m³ / s.Since the maximum water flow to the alignment member at a rate of 24,400 m³ / s, decided to build an additional spillway.This structure is designed to increase the overall capacity of spillways to 8000 m³ / s.
The composition of the Sayano-Shushenskoye hydropower complex organizational part Mainskaya HPP with the capacity 321 MW and performs the function of counter-regulator.
educated dam reservoir has a total volume of 31 cubic meters.km (from which useful - 15 cu. km).Its area is 621 square meters.km.The water quality of the reservoir is very high, which made it possible to organize it Fishing Company, trout growers.Creation of the reservoir led to the flooding of 35 thousand. Hectares of agricultural land.I had to endure more than 2,700 buildings.In the area of the reservoir is located Biosphere Reserve.
Design Station performed Institute "Lengidroproekt."
economic importance of
As of 2001 the cost of electricity in the power plant was 1.62 kopecks.per kWh.The profitability of the production of electricity at the power plant more than twice the profitability of thermal power plants.In addition, it is a powerful tool compensation peak fluctuations of electric power generation in the power system of Russia.
main consumer of electricity produced by power plants (75%), an aluminum plant in Sayanogorsk (corporation "Russian Aluminum").Introduction of plant occurred in 2006 specifically for energy power plant, which has not been in demand because of insufficient power transmission lines.
The station and its computer room are interesting as tourist sites.Also, the power plant has established its own museum.Since the object is to regime, it can be visited only in the regional tour operators.
area where is located the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station (map posted below), - a place that has become popular among tourists.Previously, there was even a special viewing platform from which you can best see the station.Now this place near a dam erected a memorial dedicated to builders of hydroelectric power plants.On the banks of the Yenisei rises five-domed peak of Borus, considered at Khakases national shrine as the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.Map Khakassia allows better find out where these places are.
observation deck on the left side allows you to see the white rock in the two hundred meters high.It is part of Kibik-Kordonsky marble deposits, which takes a few kilometers banks of the Yenisei.One part of the road leading from Sayanogorsk in Cheryomushki, lies directly on the marble deposit.Lay it prevented severe geological conditions and rock spurs, making it one of the lining of the most expensive in the world.
final decision on whether to begin construction of the power plant, it was decided in 1962.To begin construction in 1968.In 1975, during the construction of hydroelectric power station was partitioned channel Yenisei River, and in 1978, with the launch of the first hydroelectric station gave the first talk.From 1979 until 1985 it implemented consistently launch nine more hydraulic units.In 1988, construction of the station basically completed.In 2005, work began on the construction of a shore spillway, which should improve the reliability of the station.In 2011, the spillway was put into operation.
In 2006, found serious flaws in the machine room and the well spillway station.In 2007, a routine checkup revealed a significant deterioration of booms, whose age was 20 years.Not very well, prone to increased cracking, it was the construction of hydraulic units, which was equipped with the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.Photos published after the accident helped to judge the extent of destruction.
was developed a large program of modernization and technical upgrading of the station, the implementation of which has begun, but the accident at the power plant brought about changes in the plans of builders.
Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP accident which occurred on 17 August 2009, has caused great destruction.
in the morning in August 2009 at HPP accident occurred.There was destruction of the second hydroelectric and room was flooded turbine hall with plenty of water.7 th and 9 th hydraulic units were severely damaged, debris filled up with the third, fourth and fifth hydraulic units.This has led to the destruction of the turbine hall, which is controlled from the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.The accident resulted in the death of 75 people.
tragedy has been carefully investigated.The act of investigation published in October 2009.
new hydraulic units have been ordered to replace damaged enterprise "Power Machines".Already in 2010 we were in service units № 6, № 5, № 4 and number 3 will bring the capacity of the plant to 2560 MW - 40% of the nominal.In parallel, work was done to dismantle the unit number 2 and the construction of a shore spillway, completed a successful hydraulic testing.The station was generated 10 billion kWh of electricity.
So was completed the first phase of reconstruction, in which were commissioned four hydro stations affected the least.
In 2011, the second stage of reconstruction.It completed the construction of the second stage of the spillway and the end of the spillway, the entire complex was put into operation.
was also put into operation a new hydroelectric (№ 1).
Electricity generation in 2011 amounted to more than 18 billion kW ∙ h.
in 2012 launched three new hydroelectric: № 7, № 8, № 9, after which the power of the power plant was 3,840 MW.
in 2013 launched three new hydroelectric units: № 10, № 6, № 5, which made it possible to bring the power station to 4480 MW.
For 2013 the station produced more than 24 billion kWh.
In 2014 started the third phase of reconstruction of the station.As part of its implementation in 2014 gave the current hydraulic unit № 4.
at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power plant was carried out a full re-new hydraulic units of JSC "Power Machines", which have the best parameters and comply with the strict security and reliability.Power of the power plant has become equal to the nominal - 6400 MW.Maximum efficiency of new hydro turbines reached 96.6%, and the maximum life span of machines was increased to 40 years.Now the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP, a photo that immediately after the accident and today are very different, working at full capacity.