Immediately after the Winter War in 1939 it finally became clear that the troops there is a clear lack of heavy mortars, which could be used effectively to destroy fortified enemy positions.Starting work on their creation prevented the Great Patriotic War, when Soviet industry was not up to heavy mortars.
Victory After work resumed.Originally, the installation was created M-240.Caliber her, as the name implies, it was equal to 240 mm.But the characteristics of the machine does not fully meet the military.In particular, they were dissatisfied with the extremely weak book.Furthermore, there were complaints to the undercarriage.It was at this time began to develop the installation "Tulip".ACS had to have this increased capacity, the heavier armor and robust chassis.
development work was started July 4, 1967, according to the decree № 609-20.As for the most important part of the new artillery guns (held under the symbol 2B8), it was virtually unchanged borrowed from the heavy self-propelled mortar M-240.Fully preserved ballistics and ammunition used.Work in this area was carried out with Perm specialists.He led the project YN Kalachnikov.
Thanks to him, SAU "Tulip", the characteristics of which are presented in the article, it acquired such an impressive ballistic data.
prototypes initially collected on the chassis of "Object 305", which, in essence, was almost completely identical to that of the anti-aircraft "Circle".Initially the book was calculated so as to keep the bullet cartridge 7,62h54 from a distance of 300 meters.Development and production of landing gear engaged experts to "Uraltransmash", which led YV Tomaszów.Immediately, we note that he himself without mortar can not be used in principle.
When it began to experience "Tulip"?ACS first went for testing in late May 1969.They just ended on October 20 the same year.Successfully.But there were military tests, and only after them, in 1971, the plant was taken by the Soviet Army.
For the next two years, the plant received an order directly to the four "Tulip", the cost of one car was 210 thousand rubles.By the way speaking, a self-propelled "Acacia" cost only 30.5 thousand. Rub.
Distinctive features of the new ACS
As we have said, the trunk and the ballistic characteristics have remained from its predecessor, almost endured more or less significant changes.But, in contrast to the M-240, where the calculation was forced to spend almost all manual operations, "Tulip" - ACS with powerful hydraulic system.It is designed to do the following:
- translation tools from the firing position to the stowed and vice versa.
- Elevation mortar barrel.
- shutter opens, removing the stem on the line chambering a shell.
- Automatic feeding mines mechanized combat pack of runners at the loading rod, which are located on the upper part of the body chassis.
- In addition, with its help is charging mortar and closing the shutter.
angle firing SAU 2S4 "Tulip", in contrast to previous heavy mortar is approximately 63 ".Boeukladki (mechanical) is located directly in the body chassis.Total two pilings, where they can be placed or 40 conventional explosive shells, or 20 jets, active type.It should be noted that the charging may be carried out ACS both directly from the ground, and by a special crane.In contrast to the vertical, horizontal guidance to the target remains entirely manual.
designers used to create this installation is well-proven diesel engine B-59.Powerful propulsion system to disperse heavy SAU to 62.8 km / h on the highway.As for the conventional ground or gravel roads, the speed of movement on them is of the order of 25-30 km / h.
main shell, which often uses self-propelled mortar 2S4, mine is a standard F-864, which weighs 130.7 kilograms.Weight Net explosive content of 31.9 kilograms.As used herein GVMZ fuse 7, which is the case with each respecting mine has installation as instantaneous and delayed for detonation.
There are as many as five variants of lifting charge, which can impart a mine initial velocity of 158 to 362 m / s.Accordingly, the range wherein the fire varies from 800 to 9650 meters.
directly igniting the charge is located in the tube shank mines.Other sample powder are ring-shaped caps that are attached to all of the same tube by a special cord.Already in 1967 the government made an order for the development of industry and the creation of a special mine capacity 2 kilotons, and three years later the work was in full swing to develop exactly the same shell, but in a jet version.
Today Russian armored vehicles is armed with a much more impressive shell ...
But the real breakthrough came in 1983, when the Soviet Union on arms was adopted mine 1K113 "Daredevil".Actually, it's not even a shell in the classic sense of the word, and a separate artillery system.It consists of the following components: direct shot ZV84 (2VF4), equipped with explosive projectile ZF5.In addition, there is a laser rangefinder / designator 1D15 or 1D20.
Block course correction is at the head of the mines, and to adjust the flight are the aerodynamic control surfaces, which can be quickly and very accurately change the position of the projectile in flight.In addition, changing the course of the flight may be made with a few solid accelerators, which are located along the entire body of mine in a radial manner.
advantages of new types of shells
Adjustment takes no more than 0.1-0.3 seconds.The very procedure of "bold" shooting absolutely no different from the conventional firing mines, but the operator is required to set the opening of the optical parts and put timer on the laser pointer targets.Generally, the target pointer can be activated at a distance of 300-5000 meters from the "destination", after which the enemy object begins to actively illuminated by a laser beam.Such a Russian armored vehicles are especially important in recent years, as the pace is incredible advances in technology.
incidentally, active backlight is switched on only at that moment when the mine will be located at a distance of 400-800 meters from the goal.This is to ensure that the system of suppression of the enemy did not have time to react to the emergence of the threat.Simply put, all the while the laser is no more than three seconds, thereby countering the likelihood of enemy electronics is reduced to zero.
Although photos of armored vehicles of this type may leave the false impression of "obsolescence" or anything like that is not in sight: the installation of the 70's, being used in tandem with new, promising missiles, it can compete with the best modern swatches.
general, the probability of getting this type of projectile diameter in the range of two to three meters is 80-90%.Afghan Mujahideen learned this on their own, sad experience.With the "Tulip" and "Braves" were destroyed many of their fortified areas in the mountains.
Why do I need such a weapon?
general, "Tulip" - ACS, which is simply indispensable in the assault fortified positions of the enemy, as well as the fighting in conditions of human settlements.So, in this case, often there is a situation when the position of the enemy begin at the high apartment building (as in Grozny).The advantage of "Tulip" in that setting being delivered in 10-20 meters from the building, can send a projectile almost vertically, with the expectation that it fell exactly on the other side, flying over the position of his troops.
incidentally, powerful mine explosions caliber opponents to produce a completely unforgettable experience.This is especially true with regard to the fanatical followers of radical Islamic movements: many of them believe that, having lost the body, to heaven, they will not get.Accordingly, in the same Afghanistan, there have been occasions when large groups of enemy positions left, only to learn about the future of the shelling, "Tulips".
Mysteries of History
Many sources of data are available during both Chechen campaigns, these mortars were not used.In other publications there is evidence that during the assault "minutes" was still a volley of "Tulip".Anyway, hypocritical Dudayev did not fail to bring down a storm of criticism in the Russian army, accusing it of "using nuclear weapons.""Democratic" press it happily supported.So far it is unknown whether there was an episode with "tulip" in reality.
Fog covered suspense and armored vehicles Ukraine: still unknown (and is unlikely to ever be made public), how many of these machines have in service of the country.
According to archive data, as of 1989, the USSR was no less than 400 units of heavy mortars.That is why we can safely say that the Ukrainian armored vehicles also incorporates the self-propelled, as part of the mortar based on the western borders.
After World War II, no power in the world of such weapons in the arms did not take.In fact, so far in NATO countries no mortar, the caliber of which would exceed 120 millimeters.
As for Russia, in our country after the "Tulip" work on heavy mortars were virtually collapsed, so as to satisfy the existing specimens of the military completely.Whatever it was, SAU "Tulip", which has a photo in the article, unique in the world and to this day has not.