fourth planet of the solar system Mars - the scene of many science fiction stories.Writers and directors are often placed here by extraterrestrial civilization, hostile or friendly to us.Studies show, however, that such highly developed life on Mars is definitely not.This does not mean that the Red Planet - a place dull and uninteresting.On the contrary, many scientists in my mind is carried away here, trying to comprehend the mystery and explain the features of the fourth planet.Parameters such as the diameter of Mars, its mass, acceleration of free fall, the first and second cosmic speed in the world and so on, carefully collected and analyzed throughout the study period of our neighbor.Let's get acquainted with him as a closer.
Mars - a description of the world, perhaps, is to start with this - on the degree of remoteness from the sun should be just behind the Earth.Its orbit has a length of almost 1.5 billion kilometers and, like most of the planets, is an ellipse.Beyond the orbit of Mars is the main asteroid belt.
one revolution around the world the Red Planet takes much more time than the Earth - 687 days.The average distance of Mars to the Sun - about 228 million kilometers.For comparison, the same figure for the earth - 149 500 000 km.
There are close to their values of parameters that characterize the Earth and Mars.Description planet always contains information about the period of revolution around the axis.As you know, the Earth is about 24 hours.In the case of the Red Planet's figure is not much different - 24 hours 37 minutes 22.7 seconds.Because of this rapid rotation of our neighbor has several flattened at the poles form.As a result, the diameter at the equator of Mars is somewhat different from the same figure for the poles.However, this same feature is also characteristic of the Earth.The diameter of Mars in kilometers at the equator reaches 6739.8.This represents approximately 53% of the similar parameter of the planet.The diameter of Mars, if you measure it in the vicinity of the poles is less than 42 km away.This option is in the same relation to the earth, like the previous one.
axis of the Red Planet has a fairly large angle of inclination to the orbital plane (24 ° 56 '), which provides another similarity to Mars with the Earth - the presence of the seasons.However, due to other characteristics of the planet differences between summer and winter is much sharper.
Some other physical parameters
In general, the main characteristics of the Earth looks more impressive than Mars.The mass of the planet is 6,4185 × 1023 kg - this is just 0.107 from those of the Earth.
density of matter constituting Mars, - 6,4185 × 1023 kg.The acceleration of free fall - 3.7 m / c2.Temperature conditions on the Red Planet much different from Earth.At the equator, in the summer day the air can warm up to + 30º, and the winter night to cool down to -80º.In the area of the poles of the temperature sometimes drops to -143º.
planet Mars, photos of which deliver almost all cell phones, whose course runs past the Red Planet, is characterized by a rather interesting features of surface topography.Here you can find a great number of craters and traces of ancient times flowed in atmospheric and water activity.
The main feature of the surface - its division into two areas.The southern hemisphere resembles a lunar landscape.In general, the surface is raised by one or two kilometers on average.The northern part of the planet, on the contrary, is below average.Then a small number of craters, the main part of the space occupied by a more or less smooth plains, presumably formed by erosion and flooding lava.Improper and extensive border separating the two zones is held in a large circle tilted about 30º to the equator.The reason for this separation surface is still unclear to scientists.
Planet Mars Solar System belongs to the same group of space objects, as the Earth.This so-called terrestrial planets.They are characterized by rocky structure as opposed to gas giants, in which structure is dominated by gaseous substances.Leading among other elements in the silicon takes Mars (21%), followed by iron, magnesium, calcium and aluminum (12.7, 5, 4 and 3%, respectively).Furthermore, on Mars sufficiently high in comparison with the earth level of sulfur - 3.1% of the total composition.
planet Mars, which is difficult to confuse the picture with pictures of other objects that have been known to surface a reddish tint.This effect is provided and hydrates of iron oxides that make up the planet soil along with silicates constituting its substrate.At the poles
polar caps of the Red Planet have a thickness of almost four kilometers.They consist of a water ice and carbon dioxide.Last in low temperature conditions prevailing here is condensed from the atmosphere.In the area of the southern polar cap were discovered geysers, which are a mixture of carbon dioxide ice and dust that is thrown at a considerable height above the surface.
polar caps begin to melt in the spring.As a result of significantly increased atmospheric pressure and there are very strong winds, contributes to the displacement of an impressive volume of gas masses in the opposite hemisphere.Wind speed while sometimes reaches 100 m / s.
These movements and cause dust storms, which are a characteristic feature of the planet.Dust storms are making a significant contribution to the conditions on Mars: impact on the change in temperature, leading to soil erosion.Traces of water
One of the motivations that lead people to explore space - the desire to find, if not the development of life, at least to the conditions suitable for its occurrence.Mars has long been regarded as one of the deserving candidates for this role.Experience to date the evidence suggests that the Red Planet once upon a time could be one of the basic conditions for the emergence of life - water in a liquid state.On Mars discovered erosion reminiscent of the characteristics water.Pictures surface rovers passed, allowed scientists to see even alleged parched river bed.In addition, the devices found on the Red Planet minerals, which are necessary for the formation of positive temperatures and water-alkaline medium.However, definitive conclusions about the water past Mars, scientists have not yet come.
water vapor present in the air shell of the planet, but in small amounts - 0.1%.In mainly (95%) of the planet's atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide, nitrogen also is present (2.7%), argon (1.6%) and oxygen (0.13%).The atmosphere was also found methane and heavy inert gases in low concentration more than the above substances.
Methane is one of the mysteries of Mars.The substance decomposes under the action of sunlight, and for its accumulation in the atmosphere, even in such small quantities requires a constant source of replenishment.Today, there are two main candidates for this role: gas hydrates, warmed up internal heat, and the Martian bacteria are assumed to exist in the deeper layers of the lithosphere.
Despite the fact that the diameter of Mars (km), its mass and other parameters of the yield of the earth, there is also the objects of impressive dimensions.Key among them - is volcanoes and mountains.The vast plain of volcanic Tharsis is located in the northern hemisphere of the planet and extends for two thousand kilometers.Here are placed such volcanoes as Arsiya, Pavonis and Askreus.Near them, on the edge of Tarsis, and is the main "attraction" of the Red Planet - Mount Olympus.Reaches a height of 27 km, it is considered the highest in the entire solar system.The diameter of the surface area occupied by Olympus is 550 km.
Tarsis in the territory can be found faults.The largest of these is the so-called Valles Marineris 4.5 thousand kilometers long and 600 kilometers wide with a depth of 10 km.On the slopes of the valley often have the most impressive in the solar system landslides.
If the diameter of the planet Mars and other numerical its characteristics are precisely known and is not questioned, some other parameters causes a lot of questions among scientists.Among them, the magnetic field of the planet.In fact it is not: there is nothing to protect Mars from exposure to sunlight.However, research spacecraft have shown that there are areas on the planet with a sufficiently strong magnetic field.There is a theory that Mars about 4 billion years ago, has a powerful protection from the sun, similar to Earth's, but then lost it.
Freeze leftovers field are bands with variable polarity extending from west to east.Width of up to thousands of kilometers.Such local magnetic fields - a mystery to scientists.It is not clear either their origin or cause of this polarity.
diameter of Mars, however, also some time ago there was a mystery to the people.Investigations are continuing and the Red Planet are getting deeper because of engineering excellence and new knowledge in the field of astrophysics.And so there is every reason to believe that the mysteries of Mars somehow be disclosed and explained in the not too distant future.