Many gaseous substances existing in nature and produced in the manufacture, are potent poisons.It is well known that chlorine is used as a biological weapon, a pair of bromine have a strong caustic effect on the skin, causing hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and so on.
One such material is the carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, whose formula is different in structure.On it will be discussed further.
chemical formula CO
empirical view of the present compound of the formula is: CO.However, this form only gives a description of the qualitative and quantitative composition, but does not affect the characteristics of the structure and order of atomic bonds in a molecule.But it is different from that of all other similar gases.
This feature affects the compound exhibited physical and chemical properties.What is this structure?
structure of the molecule
Firstly, the empirical formula shows that the valence of the carbon compound is II.Just like oxygen.Consequently, each of them can form two bonds.The chemical formula for carbon monoxide CO is clearly confirmed.
what happens.Between carbon and oxygen by the mechanism of the socialization of the unpaired electrons are formed double polar covalent bond.Thus, the structural formula takes the form of carbon monoxide C = O.
However, this particular molecule does not end there.By donor-acceptor mechanism in the molecule is formed a third, dative or dative bond.Why is this?Since after the formation of covalent bonds at the exchange in order oxygen remaining two pairs of electrons on a carbon atom and - an empty orbital, then the latter acts as an acceptor of one of the first pair.In other words, a pair of electrons located on the free oxygen orbitals carbon bond formation occurs.
example, carbon - acceptor, oxygen - donor.Therefore, the formula in the chemistry of carbon monoxide takes the following form: S≡O.This structuring reports molecule additional chemical stability and inertia to exhibit the properties under normal conditions.
So bond in the molecule of carbon monoxide:
- two polar covalent, formed at an exchange mechanism due to the socialization of unpaired electrons;
- one dative formed on the donor-acceptor interaction between a pair of free electrons and orbital;
- all bonds in the molecule - three.
There are a number of characteristics that, like any other compound has carbon monoxide.Formula matter makes it clear that the crystal lattice of the molecular, the state of gaseous under normal conditions.This implies the following physical parameters.
- S≡O - carbon monoxide (formula), density - 1,164 kg / m3.
- boiling point and melting point, respectively: 191/205 0C.
- Soluble in: water (slightly), ether, benzene, alcohol, chloroform.
- has no taste or smell.
From a biological point of view, is extremely dangerous for all living beings, except for certain types of bacteria.
In terms of reactivity, one of the most inert substances under normal conditions - is carbon monoxide.The formula, which reflects all the bonds in the molecule, confirms this.It is because of this strong structure, this compound under standard environmental indicators hardly enter into any interaction.
However, it is at least a little heat system as a dative bond in the molecule breaks down as covalent.Then carbon monoxide begins to take an active restorative properties, and strong enough.So, it is able to interact with:
- alkalis (melts);
- oxides and metal salts;
- with gray;
- slightly with water;
- with ammonia;
- with hydrogen.
Therefore, as stipulated above, the properties of which shows the carbon monoxide, the formula it largely explains.
Being in nature
main source of CO in the atmosphere - forest fires.Indeed, the main method of formation of the gas in a natural way - it is incomplete combustion of various types of fuel, mainly of organic nature.
Anthropogenic sources of air pollution with carbon monoxide as important also provide for the mass fraction of the same percentage, as well as natural.These include:
- smoke from the operation of factories and plants, metallurgical plants and other industrial plants;
- exhaust gases from internal combustion engines.
Under natural conditions, the carbon monoxide is readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen and water vapor to carbon dioxide.This is based first aid in cases of poisoning by this compound.
worth pointing one feature.Carbon monoxide (formula), carbon dioxide (molecular structure), respectively, are as follows: S≡O and O = C = O.The difference of one oxygen atom.Therefore, an industrial method for producing carbon monoxide based on the reaction between carbon dioxide and: CO2 + C = 2CO.This is the easiest and most common method of synthesis of this compound.
in the laboratory using various organic compounds, metal salts and complex matter, since the yield of the product do not expect too much.Qualitative
reagent in the presence of air or a solution of carbon monoxide - palladium chloride.In their pure metal formed by interaction of which causes darkening of the solution or the paper surface.
biological effect on the body
As already stipulated above, carbon monoxide - a colorless, highly toxic, dangerous and deadly pest for the human body.And not only is human, and in general of any living.Plants that are exposed to car exhaust, die very quickly.
What exactly is the biological effects of carbon monoxide on the internal environment of animal beings?It's all about forming strong complexes of the blood protein hemoglobin and considered gas.That is, instead of oxygen molecules trapped venom.Cellular respiration immediately blocked, the gas exchange is not possible in the normal course of his.
The result is a gradual blocking of the hemoglobin molecules and, as a consequence, death.It is enough to defeat the whole by 80%, that the outcome was the fatal poisoning.To this end the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air should be 0.1%.
first signs, which can determine the onset of poisoning with this compound are:
First Aid - get out into the fresh air, where carbon dioxide under the influence of oxygen turns into carbonic acid, that is defused.Deaths from actions the substance in question is very common, especially in houses with stove heating.Indeed, during the combustion of wood, coal and other fuel as a byproduct of the gas necessarily forms.Compliance with safety regulations is crucial for saving human life and health.
also many cases of poisoning in garages where collected a lot of running car engines, but not enough fresh air is brought.Death in excess of permissible concentrations occur within an hour.Feel the presence of gas is physically impossible, because no smell, no color he does not.
use in industry
in the metallurgical industry for the reduction reaction of the metal oxides or salts is often used carbon monoxide.The formula of the resulting compound - CO2.Also it formed a pure substance - metal.
Moreover, carbon monoxide is used:
- for processing meat and fish products, allowing you to give them a fresh look;
- for the synthesis of some organic compounds;
- as a component of the gas generator.
Therefore, this substance is not only harmful and dangerous, but also very useful for the human and economic activity.