The economy of the developed socialism - table.

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unstable economic situation in the country in the early 60-ies of the last century gave rise to doubts about the effectiveness and appropriateness of administrative dictatorship even the most leadership of the state.Even in the times of Khrushchev in print began debate on the new production incentives.On their pages, a new term - "the economy of the developed socialism".Reforms (table showing the major changes will be shown later in this article) as a whole did not reject a directive model.However, at the same time it introduced certain mechanisms of self-regulation, as well as producers of material interest in efficiency.Let us consider further what constitutes the economy of developed socialism, the pros and cons of measures taken.

transformations in agriculture

What activities included the economy of the developed socialism?The reforms primarily affected agriculture.Their beginning was announced in March 1965.Outlined measures aimed at solving social problems in rural areas, the introduction of economic incentives to work.It was increased purchase prices, introduced a 50 percent surcharge to the basic price for the sale of products over the plan.At the same time, and increased investment.The economy of the developed socialism in the Soviet Union presupposes the establishment of a ten-year solid plan for public procurement.To strengthen the incentives were reduced restrictions on private farming.

Disadvantages changes

economies of developed socialism relied on the administrative levers.State authorities are still trying to strengthen the role of Ministers of Agriculture in the management and planning of agriculture.Focuses on increasing investment and debt relief farms.The development of the agricultural sector sent huge amounts of money.However, they have been used inefficiently.Part of the funds was used for the construction of the giant complex, expensive equipment purchases, of ill-considered application of chemicals and soil reclamation.The collective farms were introduced stable cash salaries.At its core - it's one of the most important achievements in the social sphere.However, after administration began to develop dependency.What brought the economy of the developed socialism?The conclusion is very disappointing.As a result, the activity changes state and collective farms became unprofitable.For 25 years, between 1964 and 1988., There was a reduction of arable land reclaimed 22 million hectares.Highly were losses in agricultural output.Losses in this sector ranged from 20 to 40%.The country, which had fertile black soil, has become the world's largest importer of food and grain.

industrial sector

economies of developed socialism in the early stages of developing means of improving the economic mechanism or incentives for workers.In September 1965, leaders of reform tried to combine these approaches.Thus began the changes in the industrial sector.In contrast to the agriculture reform is not rejected the foundations of the command economy.The main principles of planning conditions began to change and improvement incentives.The economy of the developed socialism maintained stringent standards in terms of output.At the same time we introduced new measures aimed at ensuring the quality of the goods.To increase incentives to manufacturers were allowed to keep part of the revenue available to enterprises.Earnings divided into funds:

  • self-financed production.
  • household and socio-cultural development (construction of resorts, clubs, housing, and so on).
  • material incentives.

Development Economics socialism assumed that the line ministries, which were planned to restore the will to act not as a former "dictator", and as consultants and partners companies.They should facilitate the organization of production in the conditions of self-financing, based on strengthening self-financing and self-sufficiency.As part of activities that included the economy of developed socialism, provided the combination of a unified state planning with local initiative.Thus the right adjustment plans, the last statement, belonged only to the enterprises themselves.

economy of the developed socialism: summary of the results of industrial transformation

Despite all the contradictions and limitations, conversion resulted in a substantial result.At the end of the eighth five-year plan from 1966 to 1970 there was an increase in industrial production by 1.5 times.The country was built about 1900 is quite large enterprises.Among them, for example, Volzhsky plant in Togliatti.But by the end of the 60th course of reforms has slowed down.This was due to quite objective reasons.First of all, the country has considerably decreased the proportion of the working population.In addition, the traditional resource base has been depleted dramatically risen mining, obsolete equipment, increased military spending.But the main problem was that the very economic model that rejected all the innovations, has exhausted itself - the development could go by inertia some time, but in the long term, the system was doomed to failure.

main problems

reform gave rise to some difficulties.In particular, the construction of the giant industrial complexes led to the monopolization of the industry.This, in turn, is caused by poor product quality and lack of consumer choice.Introduction of indicators to assess the quality of the price of goods has led not only to his rise in price, but also a significant reduction in production volume.As a result, there was a shortage of products.Each year, it increased the volume of imports of goods, which was unable to produce the domestic industry.

Conservation of the political regime

economies of developed socialism faltering.What was it called?The guidance apparatus recited opinion on the report of Brezhnev, Kosygin made at the plenary session in September 1965.The ruling circles believe that reform to nothing lead.And it was not the need for change, but a lack of desire to work.According to some authors, this attitude was the reason for insolvency reform.Soon, the focus moved to the new resources of raw materials, which were opened on the east of the country.At the same time it was decided to carry out an adjustment of the system of economic governance.In 1979, an attempt was made to revive the situation by improving economic leverage and influence of the party leadership.But all these efforts could not solve the existing problems.The ruling circles have again started to talk about the benefits of moral stimulus over the material.To compensate for the shortcomings of the imperfection of the economic mechanism revived socialist competition.Only in 1983, after the death of Brezhnev, Andropov - the new leader of the country - took a "large-scale experiment."During his anticipated to weaken the centralized distribution and planning, a number of changes in pricing at certain regions and businesses.These measures have been successful, but the effect was short-lived by them.There is still an urgent problem remains the change of economic levers.


By the early '70s in the West began a post-industrial stage of development.It entailed the automation of production processes, the massive use of computers and robots, the introduction of new technologies.At the same time began individualization of labor, transformation of it into a creative activity, free from restrictions.In the USSR, we talked a lot about NTP.As part of the emerging scientific and technological progress in the country were created by top-class examples of computers.In 1971, at the next congress of the CPSU has sounded a new installation.Plan for the next years was realized when combined with the benefits of the achievements of the progress of socialism.But the disadvantages of the existing regime significantly slowed the progress of science and technology, the introduction of the achievements in the production process.Periodically, there were reports of major developments and discoveries.However, if they do not carry military value, it has remained unimplemented due to lack of funds and lack of support from developers in those organs, which decides the fate of discoveries.

attempts to solve the problem of STP

leadership of the country are beginning to realize the need to move to advanced production methods.As a result, 4-fold reduction in the number being built every year large enterprises.Instead, the NGOs were established (scientific production association), there were new industries (nuclear engineering, microelectronics, robotics, and so on).Despite these efforts, these trends could not be decisive.Soviet scientists were first class, and sometimes unique developments in fundamental science.However, in practical life, scientific and technological progress is almost not felt.By the 80s were still working by hand about 40% of employment, 60% of construction, 75% of rural workers.

reaction of the world community

should be noted that in 1985 in the United States, there were about 1.5 million new computers and about 17 million PCs.In the USSR, by this time there were several tens of thousands of these machines, the vast majority of which were obsolete models.The worsening situation has been caused by the sanctions adopted by the West in the early 80s.As a result of their introduction in the Soviet Union practically stopped the import of advanced models of equipment and high technology from abroad.Thus, by the mid-80s the country again, as in the twenties, was under threat from the backlog of new western states.

economy of the developed socialism (table)




in the agricultural sector

introduction of the material interest of the manufacturer, machineryself-regulation, the problems in the village.

Unprofitableness collective and state farms, with the loss of / agricultural products, reduction of arable land reclaimed.

In industry

improving the economic mechanism, coupled with stronger material incentives for workers.

increase in production, the emergence of large plants and industrial complexes.The weakening of the working population, the depletion of raw materials base, more expensive extraction of minerals, wear and aging equipment, increased military spending.

In the social sphere

Reducing health care costs, the introduction of food rationing.

increased mortality, aggravation of the food problem, the increase in the import of products, the decline in real incomes.

In conclusion

What finally brought the economy of the developed socialism?The table above shows that the overall picture is depressing.However, the position of the main part of the inhabitants of the state has improved somewhat.Fewer people continued to live in communal apartments, houses began to appear televisions, refrigerators, washing machines.Notes and a slight increase in salary.Nevertheless, in terms of consumption country in the world only took 77th place.