local government reforms carried out by Peter I, did not differ consistently and effectively.Reconstruction of municipal and local authorities hampered by the officials.About what has been called the new reform of the municipal government, which lacks existing reforms she had to correct, explain in this article.
Background urban reform
reform of urban governance Peter 1 began well before the planned reorganization of the central and supreme power in the state.The main reasons for change were the new social relations in the country, expanding its territory and the designation of new executive functions, which in the region to implement local management.
City reform.The first attempt
restructuring of local authorities was dictated by the requirements of the time.Russia tried to provide an outlet to the Baltic Sea, the military needs of the country grew.Former Provincial and writ form government could not provide the performance of tasks on the collection of taxes and recruitment in controlled areas.The primary objective is the distribution of responsibilities between local boards and the offices of the clerks, the introduction of elements of European urban governance.These factors explain what was called the new reform of urban governance and should have been updated to operate authorities.To this end, in 1699 it started the first urban reform.
The reform of urban governance was an attempt to reform the Russian city on the European model, give them the same rights that took Western European states and city councils.Russian city out of obedience provinces, and management handed the steward, who were determined through elections.In the capital, appeared burmistrskaya Chamber before which a small-town bailiffs reported on the state of the collected taxes, charges and fees.In other cities, the controls were transferred Zemsky huts, which also led elected bailiffs.
shortcomings of the first reforms
about what has been called the new reform of urban governance can be judged by the disappointing results of the first transformation.Newly formed system proved to be non-transparent and insufficiently effective.The fragmentation of local authorities are not allowed to build a clear chain of command.Supplemented by a variety of minor confusion bodies.Thus, the bureaucratic power of Peter I added the elective class establishments.In addition, along with the civil authorities and the military authorities acted, which is responsible for passport control and collection of the poll tax, thus duplicating some functions of the civil authorities.
Why did the new reform of urban governance?Based on the foregoing, it is possible to form several reasons:
- still lacking strict vertical power;
- authority to appoint managers in the field limited to elected bodies;
- excessive number of elective offices (bailiffs, magistrates, representatives of class meetings), hindered the work of local government.
second urban reform
In 1720, the new capital of the Russian empire was created by Chief Magistrate, who is accountable to all elected municipal magistrates.
In 1721 was adopted the regulations, which set out new principles of urban unit.City divided by the number of residents in the five large classes.The population was divided into "irregular" and "regular" citizens.Among the "non-regular" citizens were mostly representatives of the poorest.Wealthy "regular" citizens were left former privileges.
Despite the loyalty authorities to the wealthy citizens, a new system of government has not proven effective in the management is still dominated by rigid, military-bureaucratic methods of solving problems, besides the increasing centralization of the elected bodies are not allowed to pursue a policy on the ground.