most modern people know the name of Julius Caesar.It is referred to as a name for lettuce, one of the summer months, as well as in film and television.What is this historic figure conquered people, they remember who this Caesar, even after two thousand years after his death?
Rod future leader, the politician, the writer was from a patrician family Julio.At the time this family has played a significant role in the life of Rome.Like any old family, they had their own version of the mythical origin.Line their names led to the goddess Venus.
Mother Gaius was Aurelia Cotta, descendant of the wealthy plebeians.By name it is clear that its genus was named Aurelius.Father was Gaius Julius Caesar older.It was he who belonged to the patricians.
Intensive discussions are continuing on the year of birth of the dictator.Most often referred to as 100 or 101 BCAlso, there is no common opinion as to the number.Commonly referred to as three versions: March 17, July 12, July 13.
To understand what is Caesar should refer to his childhood.He grew up in the area of Rome, who had a pretty bad reputation.He studied at home, learning the Greek language, literature and rhetoric.Knowledge of Greek enabled him to receive further education, as the majority of scientific papers written on it.One of his teachers was the famous rhetorician Gnifon, who once taught Cicero.
Presumably in 85 BCGuy had to lead the family Julio because of the sudden death of his father.
Personality: appearance, character, habits
About Gaius Julius appearance left a lot of description by many of his sculptural portraits, including his lifetime.Caesar photo (reconstruction) which is given above, was, according to Suetonius, tall, light-skinned.He was well built and had a dark lively eyes.
politician and military leader rather carefully look after themselves.He cut his nails, shaved, plucked hair.With a bald spot on the front of the head, he hid it in every possible way, combing hair from the crown of the forehead.According to Plutarch, Caesar's physique was very frail.
Ancient writers unanimously agreed that the dictator had vigorously.He quickly react to changing circumstances.According to Pliny the Elder, he was communicating with many people through correspondence.If desired, while the dictator was able to read and dictate several letters to the secretaries of the various recipients.Thus it could at this point he write something.
Julius hardly drink wine and was very unpretentious in food.He brought out his military campaigns of luxury items, such as the mosaic floors, expensive crockery.He bought paintings, statues, beautiful slaves.
family and personal life
Julius Caesar, whose biography is considered officially married three times.Although there are also information about that before this marriage, he was engaged to Kossutsiey.His wives were:
- Cornelius family of the consul.
- Pompey - granddaughter of the dictator Sulla.
- Calpurnia - a representative of a wealthy plebeian family.
Cornelia and commander daughter was born, he was married to his colleague Gnaeus Pompey.As for his relationship with Cleopatra, they took place while Julius was in Egypt.After that Cleopatra had a child, which gave the name of the Alexandrians Caesarion.However, Julius Caesar did not recognize him as his son and did not enter into the will.
military and political activities
early career was the position of the flamen of Jupiter, which Guy took in the 80s BCFor this, he canceled the engagement and married the daughter of Cornelius Cinna, who nominated him for this honorable position.But things quickly changed when the change of power in Rome, and Guy had to leave the city.
understand what is Caesar, allowing plenty of examples from his life.One of these is the case when he was captured by pirates demanding ransom.The politician was bought, but immediately afterwards organized the capture of their captors and executed them crucified.
Who was Julius Caesar in ancient Rome?He held the following positions:
- military tribune;
- quaestor on financial matters in Further Spain;
- superintendent of the Appian Way, which is renovated for their money;
- curule aediles - organized the urban construction, commerce, catering;
- the head of a permanent criminal court;
- lifelong Pontifex Maximus;
- governor of Further Spain.
All of these positions require large expenditures.I mean he took from his creditors, with the understanding that they have provided.
After a successful governorship in Spain Long awaited policy triumph in Rome.However, he refused these honors for career reasons.The fact that the deadline approached (by age), when he was elected consul can be in the Senate.But this required a person to register his candidacy.At the same time the man, who is waiting for Triumph, can not be too soon to appear in the city.He had to make a choice in favor of further career, giving up honors relied winner.
After learning of who this Caesar, it is clear that his ambition was flattered more than a place in the Senate for the first year in which it is permissible under the law.At that time it was considered very honorable.
a result of long political combinations of policies to reconcile his two companions, which resulted in a first triumvirate.The expression means "union of the three men."Year of its creation is not known for sure, because this union was wearing a secret character.Historians believe that this has happened in 59 or 60 BCIt consists of Caesar, Pompey, Crassus.As a result of all actions Gaius Julius managed to become consul.
Participation in the Gallic War
his triumvirate of Julius Caesar, whose biography is presented in the article became disappoint the citizens of Rome.However, due to his departure to the province all the complaints had to pour Gnaeus Pompey.
At this time, in what is now the province of France was founded Narbonne Gaul.Caesar arrived in Genavu on the site which is now located Geneva for talks with the leaders of one of the Celtic tribes.Under pressure from the Germans, these tribes began to settle in the territory of the Roman Republic.Guy had to fight for the land to the province of Gauls and Germans.At the same time, he led an expedition to Britain.
After a series of victories to Caesar succeeded in the 50th BCsubjugate the whole of Gaul to Rome.However, he did not forget to follow developments in the Eternal City.Sometimes he even intervened in them through their proxies.
establishment of the dictatorship
Back in Rome, the commander came into conflict with Gnaeus Pompey.In 49-45 years BCThis led to the Civil War.Gaius Caesar had a lot of supporters all over Italy.He drew on his side a considerable part of the army and went to Rome.Pompey was forced to flee to Greece.The war unfolded throughout the country.The commander and his legions alternated wins and losses.The decisive battle was the Battle of Pharsalus, won by Caesar.
Gnaeus had to flee again.This time he went to Egypt.Julius set off after him.None of the opponents did not expect to kill Pompey in Egypt.Here, Julius was forced to linger.First reason was unfavorable to ship wind, and then the commander decided to improve his financial situation due to the Ptolemaic dynasty.Thus, he became a participant in the struggle for the throne between Cleopatra and Ptolemy the Thirteenth.
In Egypt, he spent a few months, then continued his campaign to restore the territory of Rome, which began to disintegrate because of the Civil War.
Caesar became dictator of three:
- in 49 BC, a period of 11 days, then resigned.
- in 48 BC, for a year, then went on the board as the proconsul, and later consul.
- in 46 BCHe became a dictator with no formal justification for 10 years.
All his power was based on the army, so the election of Caesar all subsequent positions was a formality.
During his reign, Gaius Julius Caesar (photo sculpture can be seen above), together with his associates held a variety of reforms.However, to determine which of them are directly related to the time of his rule, it is quite difficult.The most famous is the reform of the Roman calendar.Citizens had to go on the solar calendar, which was developed by scientists from Alexandria Sozingen.So, from 45 BCthere was now known throughout the Julian calendar.
Death and testament
Now it is clear who is Julius Caesar, whose biography is completed quite tragic.In 44 BCagainst his autocratic formed a conspiracy.Opponents and supporters of the dictator feared he Adam called himself king.One group was led by Marcus Junius Brutus.
At a meeting of the Senate realized the idea of the destruction of the conspirators Caesar.His body was found after the murder of 23 stab wounds.The body of the citizens of Rome was burned at the Forum.
Julius made his successor nephew Gaius Octavius (adopted him), who got three-quarters of the inheritance, and was called like this: Gaius Julius Caesar.
During his reign, he pursued a policy of sacralization own name and lineage.Apparently, the success of his action on the promotion of private persons exceeded his expectations.Perhaps that is why in the modern world Gaius Julius Caesar is known as students, and representatives of the art world.