1945-1948 years were thorough preparation, which led to the division of Germany and the appearance on the European map of the two countries formed instead - West and East Germany.Deciphering the names of interesting in itself and serves as a good illustration of their different social vector.
After the Second World War, Germany was divided between the two camps occupation.The eastern part of the country occupied by the Soviet Army, the western part was occupied by the Allies.The western sector is gradually consolidated, the territory was divided into historical lands, managed by local governments.In December 1946 it was decided to merge the British and American occupation zones - formed t. N.Buffalo.It is now possible to create a single body of land management.Thus was created the Economic Council - a selective body authorized to take the economic and financial decisions.
First of all these decisions concerned the implementation of "Marshall Plan" - large-scale American finance a project aimed at restoring the economies of European countries devastated by the war."The Marshall Plan" contributed to the separation of the eastern zone of occupation, because the Soviet government did not accept the offer of help.In the future, a different vision of the future of the Allies and the Soviet Union in Germany led to a split of the country and determined the formation of West Germany and East Germany.
western zone needs a full merger and the official state status.In 1948, consultations were held Western allies.The meeting resulted in the idea of a West German state.In the same year to Bizonia joined the French occupation zone - thus was formed the so-called Trizoniya.In Western lands was a monetary reform with the introduction into circulation its own currency.Military governors combined land proclaimed principles and conditions for the creation of a new state, a special emphasis on its GFR.In May 1949 it ended with the preparation and discussion of its Constitution.The state was named Germany.Explanation here sounds like the Federal Republic of Germany.Thus, proposals have been taken into account and local government land, and marked republican principles of government.
Geographically, the new country was located on 3/4 of land that formerly occupied Germany.Germany had its capital - the city of Bonn.Western governments, the Allies through their governors exercised control over the observance of human rights and norms of the constitutional system, monitored its foreign policy, had the right to intervene in all spheres of economic and scientific activity of the state.Over time, the status of the land has been scrapped in favor of greater autonomy for the land of Germany.
process of creation of the state was in the eastern German lands occupied by troops of the Soviet Union.Supervisory Authority in the east was SMAD - Soviet military administration.Under the supervision of SMAD were created by local governments - lantdagi.Chief of the SMAD, and in fact - the owner of East Germany, was appointed Marshal Zhukov.Elections to the new authorities were carried out according to the laws of the USSR, ie. E. Along class lines.A special decree from February 25, 1947 was liquidated Prussian state.Its territory was divided between the new land.Part of the newly-formed stepped Kaliningrad region, all settlements of the former Prussia were Russified and renamed, and the territory was settled by Russian immigrants.
Officially SMAD led military control over the territory of East Germany.Administration by the Central Committee of the SED, which is completely controlled by the military administration.The first step was the nationalization of enterprises and land, confiscation of property and the distribution of it on a socialist basis.In the process of redistribution of the existing administrative apparatus, which took over the functions of state control.In December 1947, it became operational German People's Congress.In theory, the Congress had to unite the interests of the West and East Germans, but in fact in the western lands of his influence was negligible.After separation of the western lands became NOCs perform the functions of the Parliament only in the eastern territories.Second National Congress, formed in March 1948, held the main activities related to the Constitution to prepare the emerging countries.Special issue of the order was carried out of the German mark - thus, the five Länder in the zone of Soviet occupation, went to the single currency.In May 1949, the socialist democratic state constitution was adopted and formed Inter-party socio-political national front.Preparation of the eastern lands to the formation of the new state was completed.October 7, 1949 at a meeting of the German Supreme Council announced the creation of a new body of supreme state power, called the Provisional People's Chamber.In fact, that day can be considered as the date of birth of the new state, created in opposition to Germany.Explanation of the name of the new state in East Germany - the German Democratic Republic, the capital of the GDR became East Berlin.The status of West Berlin was specifically mentioned.For many years, the ancient capital of Germany was divided into two parts of the Berlin wall.
development of countries such as Germany and the German Democratic Republic, carried out by different economic systems."The Marshall Plan" and effective economic policy Ludwig Erhrada allowed to quickly lift the economy in West Germany.Large GDP growth was announced by the German economic miracle.Migrant workers arriving from the Middle East, the inflow of cheap labor.In 50 years of ruling party CDU adopted a number of important laws.Among them - a ban of the Communist Party, the elimination of all the consequences of Nazi activities, a ban on certain professions.In 1955, the Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO.
Government of the GDR government, which is responsible for management of the German states, ceased to exist in 1956, when it was decided to eliminate the local government.Earth became known as counties, the executive branch began to represent county councils.At the same time it became implanted personality cult advanced communist ideology.Politics Sovietization and nationalization has meant that the country's post-war recovery process is strongly delayed, especially against the backdrop of the economic success of Germany.
normalization of relations of the GDR, the German
Explanation of contradictions between the two fragments of one state gradually normalize relations between the two countries.In 1973, the Treaty entered into force.It regulated the relations between the FRG and the GDR.In November of the same year, Germany has recognized the GDR as an independent state, the country established diplomatic relations.The Constitution of the German Democratic Republic was introduced the idea of creating a unified German nation.
End of the GDR in 1989 in East Germany there is a strong political movement "New Forum", which triggered a series of disturbances and demonstrations in all major cities of East Germany.As a result of the resignation of the chairman of the SED government became one of the activists of "New Norum" Mr. Gysi.The mass rally, on 4 November 1989 in Berlin, which proclaimed the requirements of freedom of speech, assembly and expression, has already been agreed with the authorities.The answer was a law allowing GDR citizens crossing the border without a valid reason.This decision caused the fall of the Berlin Wall, many years divided the German capital.
Combining West and East Germany
In 1990, the power in the GDR comes the Christian Democratic Union, which immediately began to consult with the German government on the issue of unification and the creation of a single state.September 12 in Moscow signed an agreement between the former allies in the anti-Hitler coalition of the final settlement of the German question.
Combining West and East Germany would have been impossible without the introduction of the single currency.An important step in this process was the recognition of the German Deutschmark as the common currency throughout Germany.August 23, 1990 the People's Chamber of the GDR had decided to join the eastern lands to the Federal Republic of Germany.After this has been done a number of transformations, liquidated the socialist institutions of power and reshape the West German state authorities on the sample.October 3 abolished the Army and Navy of the GDR, and instead of them in the eastern territories were placed bundesmarine and the Bundeswehr - German armed forces.Explanation of names based on the word "Bundes", which means "federated".Official recognition of the eastern lands in the Federal Republic of Germany was secured adoption of the constitution of new subjects of public law.