their inhabitants many know of literary and musical works of the creative bohemian life of Paris: the poor artists and musicians lived on the uppermost floors of buildings where were dark and narrow staircase, which is not enough light, and there was no heating.What's attic in the first sense of the term?The space under the roof of high-rise buildings, which was used for household needs, and settled where those who had adequate housing unaffordable.
From the history of architecture
Roofs medieval towns, covered with tiles, had a steep slope of the roof, and the roof space formed quite significant amounts.In urban living space has always been a deficit, every residential floor taxed, and height of the building measured to the cornice.So what loft for urban homeowners XVII century?It's a way to get a clean profit.
idea of using the roof space for living quarters was born to Francois Mansart (1598-1666), but this is the architect of a widely applied technique, building in Paris buildings with roofs that have a distinctive kink.After its buildings every architect remember that this attic.The roof, which has on both sides of the ridge slopes of the two planes with different slopes allowing you to create a roof on the maximum amount of space where you can post and two-level apartment.
In many countries, mansard called the very form of the roof, the most frequently used Mansart and loft called the entire space of the ceiling of the upper floor to the roof if it is used for housing, that is carried out insulation of walls and roofs, provided natural light, is arrangedeasy access from the lower level (usually staircase), made decorative trim surfaces.
Regulations also clearly define what the attic.Determining which contains SNIP 2.08.01-89, gives the designation of the floor in the attic space, formed by the planes of the roof - sloping or broken - with the line of intersection of the vertical wall of the facade and roof of the inclined plane is at a level of 1.5 meters from the floor of the attic.
possibility of using the attic floor is calculated as follows:
- a & gt;b + 0,7 x with where
a - floor space with a height greater than 2.5 m,
b - floor space with a height of 1.1-2.5 m,
c - floor space with a ceiling height of up to 0,8-1,1 m.
It was under such circumstances the use of the attic is considered acceptable, although such figures are contained in the documents, bearing a recommendation.
Lighting attic - a very important question, which is best left to professionals.Feature is to correctly calculate the area of glass: extra openings will contribute particularly impressive heat loss.After all, what is the attic in the house, nor a place where warm air rises from the lower levels?In calculating the area of skylights should take into account the difference of efficiency of conventional windows, installed in vertical walls - in the case of attic gables usually facades - dormer windows, skylights, and hearing, installed in the roof slope.
should adhere to such proportions in the ratio of floor area and skylights:
- when placing windows in vertical structures - should not exceed 1: 5.5, the minimum ratio - 1: 8;
- the application of skylights allowed ratio of 1:10;
- when installing dormer windows because of the deep slopes up to 2/3 lost light than vertical windows.
Character attic room requires special attention to the problems of ventilation.Modern materials for device roofing "pie" and utilities to help solve this particular problem.
use of wooden structures in the construction of the attic normalizing documents fully admit, but on condition antipiriruyuschey wood processing and building height of 75 m.
usually of the advantages of the device attic floors indicate economic considerations, a reasonable use of space and high architecturalthe quality of such a constructive solution.High aesthetic quality landscaped undercovering space visible from the pictures, explaining that such a loft.Photo of magnificent interiors of bedrooms, children's rooms and located at the top level, is impressive.
on the importance of these factors affect the two main factors: a loft constructed in the reconstruction of the existing building or its use is provided in the projected building.
reconstruction of existing housing
If the attic is built on an existing building, a factor increasing the usable area is particularly attractive, with the possible use of light and inexpensive materials and designs that do not require the use of heavy equipment, so there is no need for resettlement of residents.This trend in the improvement of residential infrastructure of cities can be very attractive.
For example, what is the attic to Khrushchev?It is a completely different level of comfort and visual appeal, and if it were not for the heavy system of coordination, making such investments unprofitable and which reduces the long-term economic benefits for construction workers to a minimum set of outdated buildings could purchase a large number of more comfortable living space.
spectacular architectural method
There are many variations of the architectural use of space under the roof.Changed very understanding of what an attic.Houses, photos of which can be seen on construction sites, show that under the roof can be positioned the most attractive and comfortable rooms, of different purposes.Attic of housing for the poor has become a special "chip" - detail of the house, enhancing its architectural appeal.