Since ancient times, the custom so that its fleet had a very strong and rich state.This particularly applies to warships, which operate at all times cost very expensive.Today this statement is extremely important.Ships - terribly expensive cars, so owning a fleet incredibly reinforces the international prestige of the state, which it has.
Despite the vicissitudes of the 1990s, our country has managed to keep its navy.To date, it has gradually expanded and modernized.Unfortunately, this process is quite slow, and because ships put into operation back in recent years, the Soviet Union, still remain of paramount importance.An example of this - "Moscow".Missile cruiser with this name is still a formidable force in the vast seas.
about his opportunity to speak at least a nickname, which gave him the sailors, - "the killer of aircraft carriers."It is not only the flagship of the entire Black Sea Fleet, but also one of the most powerful ships in the fleets of Russia.Port - Sevastopol.Black Sea Fleet before the events had a lot of inconvenience, as with the Ukrainian side is constantly debate arose about the lease.Now all this is irrelevant.
built "Moscow" (missile cruiser, of course) was in the city of Mykolayiv.Initially, the ship was given the name "Glory".
Destination, commissioning time
This cruiser is the main object of the project in 1164 "Atlas".As soon as the composition of the Soviet Navy was decommissioned anti-submarine ship "Moskva" (built by 1123), the future leader of immediately he got his name.Its main purpose was immediately targeted killing of large ships potential enemy (for example, aircraft carriers), air defense of the coast and the fire cover their landing.
When it was put into operation "Moscow"?Missile cruiser launched on already in 1982, but its use is officially begin until 1983.Where
stayed than glorified cruiser?
principal place of service was the Mediterranean Sea.Repeatedly "Moscow" seen in ports all states whose shores it washes.When in December 1989 on the island of Malta hosted the meeting of Mikhail Gorbachev and George Bush (senior, of course), it is the ship ensure the safety of the entire conference.
modernization, combat use
In 1990 GRKR "Moscow" returned to his native Mykolayiv for modernization.That's only because of the collapse of the USSR, it lasted exactly 8.5 years, and only 13 May 1998 he received a new flag and the flag of the new country.In addition, at the same time from the Black Sea Fleet patrol ship taken out "Red Caucasus", which "Moscow" has received also the title of Guards.
In 2003, an event occurred which GRKR "Moscow" was first shone on the international scene since the Soviet era.We are talking about exercises "Indra", which jointly carried out by the Black Sea, Pacific Fleet and the Naval friendly India.A year later he took part in the exercise "IONIEKS-2004", which were held jointly with the Italians.The beginning of 2008 met in the Mediterranean in the company's aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" and its accompanying ships.
In August 2008, the Black Sea Fleet in the face of "Moscow" took part in the operation to force Georgia to peace, while in the waters of Ossetia.At the beginning of next year I participated in commemorative events dedicated to the anniversary of the terrible earthquake that occurred in Sicily a hundred years ago.Then, in the aftermath of the sailors took an active part of the Imperial Navy.
value "Moscow" for the Navy of the Russian Federation
In general, the ships, which was the name for the name of the state capital, are always under scrutiny.I was no exception and the "Moscow".Missile cruiser repeatedly took on board most powerful individuals both the USSR and other countries.However, this did not prevent the new authorities of the country in the early 1990s to think about sending this ship for scrap.
We do not knowingly say that the cruiser for almost eight and a half years, stood on the stocks in Nikolayev until administer complex bureaucratic delays.Fortunately, the ship cut into the metal is not given, and the Black Sea Fleet has not lost his legendary flagship.About
In the mid-1990s in the wake of "economical economy" and "reducing costs" in the national media often inflamed the whole battle."Experts" long and hotly debated, and whether it is a country need this ship.Many believed that the Black Sea to keep a cruiser profitable from the economic point of view, offering "overtake" him in the area of responsibility of the Pacific Fleet.They actively supported foreign opponents.They are absolutely not impressed by the idea that the "aircraft carrier killer" will carry its duty in these waters.
August 2008 showed how the country needed "Moscow".Guards missile cruiser was the only "weighty word," which has kept NATO from rash decisions.Now this is somehow not customary to remember, but during the "five-day war" in the Black Sea is a huge number of ships of the alliance.But Moscow (capital) is surprisingly comfortable with what is happening.
The answer was simple: missile cruiser of the "Atlanta" could easily start up the whole freeboard group of NATO ships for scrap.All this is well understood, and therefore remained a kind of armed neutrality.
How it all began
How were Russian missile cruiser of the project in 1164?The first ship of this class was encrypted name "Aurora", and its development took in the mid 70-ies of the last century.Initially, the position of chief designer Alexander Perkov was approved, but later it was replaced by V. Mutihin.From Navy watching appointed Alexander Blinov, the captain of the second rank.
a team of designers were really non-trivial task.The fact that the military needed was not just the corresponding class of warships, but a universal combat vehicle, which would be able to provide as a local anti-aircraft defense of the coastal area, and become part of the collective, together with air defense fortifications coastlines.
However, with a very challenging designers coped brilliantly.They have covered the combat glory of the complex S-300, created his version of the ship (the difference can be on the letter "F"), and then install it on the new ship.These weapons still retains a high urgency and allows confident enough to reflect the air attack on the Black Sea Fleet.
What solutions have been used?
general in "Atlanta" is widely used well-proven solutions from the ships of the project 1134B.Of course, they redesigned a few, but the main technical base remained without significant changes.By that time it was built seven ships of the project 1134B that the Navy received the nickname of "Boukari".To date, the system is left alone "Kerch", which is also part of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation.
main tactical characteristics "of Moscow»
Displacement of this magnificent ship is 11 500 tons.The total length of the ship is equal to 186 meters.With a width of 21 meters at its height - 42.5 meters.It is not surprising that such an impressive ship sludge is 8.5 meters.The maximum achievable speed (we'll talk more about this below) - 32 knots, the usual course - 16 knots.As power plants are the once four gas-turbine unit, the power of each of which is equal to 22500 liters.from.The movement of the ship lead just two propellers.
If we talk about the speed of 16 knots, it is under these conditions, the range of autonomous navigation of 6000 nautical miles (translated into the metric system - about 12 000 km).As for the time, the lack of food supplies for a month exactly avtonomki.Crew of 510 people, the number of combat personnel can be increased.To accompany the exploration and use multipurpose helicopter Ka-27 landing site is located at the stern.
Basic technical information
All ships of the "Atlanta" got a brand new gas turbine propulsion system, which had not only one propulsion engine on each shaft, and a pair of afterburning powerplants.It was a new technical solution applied, when the heat from the engine was going to heat-recovery circuit (SPS).It transforms from liquid to vapor, which rotates the turbine auxiliary power unit.
This gave a huge advantage.Even in the course of cruising at 18 knots fuel efficiency has increased by 12%.The maximum speed when using all engines now is as much as 32 knots, that ships of this class is almost a record figure.
Blinov, watching from the Navy, made by designers of technological solutions, in which the thickness of almost all elements of the case was at least 8 millimeters.By the way speaking, it was much more required of Estimate.Due to this know-how of the Russian warships are characterized by high durability.But everything has its downside: due to the used design solution displacement (when compared with the ships of the project 1134B) have grown by 28%.
fairness it should be noted that comparing these machines is not too correct in principle.The fact that such Russian warships and anti-submarine ships are very similar only in appearance and some of the technical solutions.
Originally "Moscow" and other "Atlanta" were armed with missiles P-500 "Basalt".The fire control system - "Argon".Originally, the ships were 16 such missiles.They are mounted in eight paired mines, located on the upper deck.In the course of further modernization of outdated missile armament was changed to P-1000 "Volcano".These missiles can hit targets at a distance of about 700 kilometers.
basics of combat systems
fire control system allows the mode of combat run, including one-stage start (to hit a single target) of 16 missiles.By the way speaking, this salvo will not sustain any one aircraft carrier in the world.How did these marine warships get coordinates of targets at such long-range launches?It's simple: either by satellite or aircraft Tu-95, or through the work of its own reconnaissance and targeting.
anti-aircraft armament cruiser
for effective reflection of air attacks on the ship just two mounted SAMs.First, the C-300F is designed for collective or zonal air defense system.The second, "Osa-M" is designed only to reflect the attack aircraft, helicopters and missiles on the ship itself.
For S-300F are just eight launchers drum, allowing to make a relatively quick recharge and maintenance of missiles.They are placed in the area of the upper deck and aft of the cruiser.In order to effectively manage the process of launching and targeting in naval gun systems it included a special radar.Its feature is the antenna, made on a "phased array".
As we have said, the ship used for self-defense complex "Osa-M", which allows you to confidently hit targets at a distance of about ten kilometers.It is composed of two PU (with homing system, working in two planes).In contrast to the older ships set of self-defense and has its own management system.The total ammunition two complexes SAM "Wasp" is exactly 48 missiles.Accordingly, for the C-300 provides 64 ammunition.
more anti-aircraft systems
But the possibility of anti-aircraft cruisers are not limited.To make it really multipurpose combat unit, into the design including universal (can also shoot at onshore and offshore facilities) 130 mm setting (automatic, of course), AK-130.To enhance its effectiveness, it is a complete system of radar detection "Lion".
Among other things, the ship has a whole battery of 30 mm six-barrel guns AK-630M.The battery - two installations, each of which is controlled by the guidance and target tracking "Vympel".The condition of the air space near the ship itself, as well as for the supply of information on-board anti-aircraft armament responsible radar "Flag", which includes two other radar installation "Frigate" and "Sunrise."Their antenna rigidly mounted on the foremast and main mast "killer of aircraft carriers."
fight against enemy submarines
Soviet designers have not forgotten how formidable opponent may be submarines.Despite the shock specialization cruiser well protected from them: there is a well-proven sonar complex "Platinum", which includes towed and Bulbov antenna.For direct attack of enemy submarines provided just two 533 mm unit to launch torpedoes.
contrast, two RBU-6000 installation (missile and bomb) as time are intended to protect the ship by torpedo volleys from the enemy.
Overall assessment of all the ships of the project
whole project "Atlant" laid the four ships.The operation gave only three.Each of the ships currently in service.They serve on the Black Sea, Pacific and Northern fleets.In principle, the project "Atlas" turned out to be truly worthy and deserving of attention, in contrast to predecessors such as 1144 "Orlan".Ships of the project in 1164 had a much smaller displacement, but the armament was no worse, and in most cases better than their predecessors.
Moreover, already at creation was a priority set of offensive weapons.Despite this new cruisers have enough weaknesses.For example, in ships of the "eagle" was of 96 missiles for S-300, while the "Atlantis" of only 64 pieces.In addition, SAM "Wasp-M" were once the best means of self-defense ships from air attacks, but at the time of their cruisers opportunities is clearly not enough.Finally, in the courts of the project in 1144 there were just 16 PU "Dagger".
Thus, cruisers Project 1164 perfectly meets all requirements of the late Soviet doctrine on the use of the Navy when warships planned to send into battle only if they are reliable air cover.Unfortunately, the current state of affairs corresponds to such a doctrine is bad.Not always it is possible to provide a reliable protection of ships from the air, so it is particularly important to their own air defense system.
main disadvantages of the project Ships
most significant drawback (besides the above nuances) is the presence of only one multi-channel radar ("Wave"), designed to capture and guidance purposes complete with S-300.Furthermore, in case of unit failure ship almost completely loses more or less adequate protection from attacks from the air, "Wave" may not reflect the attack with more than one direction.If we talk about similar cruisers Americans (built under the project "Ticonderoga"), then each of them is mounted on four (!) Independent radar that can automatically carry and shoot down targets in several directions.
Thus, the presence of only one radar not only makes the "Atlanta" in a relatively easy target for enemy fighters perspective, but also makes it extremely dangerous anti-ship missiles, NATO, which in recent years show excellent opportunities for multi-sectoral attack.
These are the ships have been established in the city of Mykolayiv.Shipyard is now not only on the territory of another country, but also in poor condition, so that there is such a court is unlikely to be built.The only hope for the domestic defense industry that can develop building something similar.