The history of health as a science

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Today, nobody even thinks whether to wash their hands when they come from the street, no one doubts about the need for a daily wash, clean apartment, remove dust and dirt.However, it was not always.There were periods of time when people did not gave such things matter.Therefore, the history of health as a science has long roots in the deep past.Sprouts and today it is relevant and prevalent in all countries, all peoples.

Health science: subject, goals and objectives

Who is the study of this discipline, and what does she do?Try to understand.

purpose of this science is the development of comprehensive preventive measures that can provide a person a normal life in the environment, and to deliver him from unwanted ailments.That is preventing the development of harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi around people, it provides complete information on how to maintain a healthy state of the body, housing, health leave untouched.

Accordingly, the object of study of science is a person and the environment, their interaction and mutual influence on the condition and health of each other.

According to this goal, a discipline focused on the following objectives:

  1. study the influence of biotic and abiotic environment, as well as social factors on the health and condition of the person, including the psycho-emotional sphere.And on the basis of the data obtained to develop a package of health measures that could reduce or eliminate this effect.
  2. develop methods to improve the stability, resilience of the human body to various factors.
  3. consider the impact of pathogens to humans and to establish a set of measures to combat them.

So what are the objectives set itself this science?Health of man - is primarily a prevention, prevention, elimination of possible problems in advance.

Classification discipline

With the development of knowledge about hygiene standards in the science sections appeared who study any specific impacts on humans.So, there are several main branches of hygiene.

  1. Total - aimed at the formation of the complex anti-epidemic measures, immunization against diseases under the influence of the external environment.
  2. Grounds Care - examines the direct impact of living conditions and the various settlements on human health.So here include hygiene soil, water, air, populated areas, homes and public buildings.
  3. Meal .The industry aims to study the effect of the quality and quantity of food to maintain normal health and vitality.That employees of departments of food hygiene are able to correlate a person's lifestyle with the necessary amount of calories, and develop dietary measures to prevent various diseases (obesity, anorexia, bulimia, diabetes, etc.).
  4. Occupational associates working conditions and human health, as well as the mutual influence of these parameters.
  5. Hygiene of children and adolescents. special branch, as directed on the creation of knowledge about the importance of preventive measures is in schoolchildren and preschoolers.They are the first to learn that studies the science of health, why it is needed and what use it is contained.

Main sections of hygiene

In addition to these, there are a number of different sections of the considered discipline:

  • radiation;
  • military;
  • sports;
  • transport;
  • space;
  • hospital;
  • resort;
  • mental hygiene;
  • personal;
  • public;
  • hygiene village.

It is evident that this science covers all social, biological, chemical, physical factors that can affect human health.That is why the Hygiene - the science of health (at first).This is confirmed by its close relationship with other human sciences.

relationship with other health sciences

Given the specificity of the considered discipline, not hard to guess that the main related science - is:

  • medicine;
  • epidemiology;
  • environment (general and human);
  • microbiology;
  • toxicology.

All of them are in close cooperation and the formation of a theoretical framework and hygiene is largely based on data for the above disciplines.

particularly close contact have hygiene and human ecology.After all, the object of the first - person, the subject matter of a second - the environment.Since people are in constant and continuous contact with nature, then science outlined above, can not interact.Thus, for example, hygiene norms defined maximum permissible concentration of hazardous substances, gases and impurities in the air.Ecology is based on these indicators in the calculation and characterization of the quality of the atmosphere.

Formation and development of science in the ancient world

history of hygiene is deeply rooted in the past.After all, even in the ancient world were the first signs of concern about the safety of health and of the importance of cleanliness and order.

There are several major historical centers that originated the basics of hygiene.For example, in ancient India had taken a number of important laws.They reflect the basic rules of personal and public hygiene (cleaning garbage from the streets, burial of corpses to prevent the spread of infections, maintenance of the body clean, and so on).

Virtually the same rules were part of a set of state laws by the ancient Greeks, Egyptians, Chinese, Jews and Romans.All these people had to observe the following rules:

  • sexual health;
  • personal rules preserve the body clean;
  • compliance with food regime;
  • isolation of sick people from healthy;
  • sunbathing;
  • physiotherapy and so on.

Fundamentals of communal hygiene in antiquity

Despite this ancient period of time in question, however, is already in Ancient Egypt (many years before our era) were working, it is now the subject of communal hygiene.For Egyptians dried the soil to prevent the development of excessive moisture and vermin, mold, fungi and other microorganisms.While still knew practically nothing about their existence.

They were the first to construct a simple water system.There are certain rules, which were equipped street.Gradually, all the skills and knowledge transferred to other regions of the planet.

Romans in general were able to build such sewage systems, which were considered a miracle of technology.Their streets were empty and free of impurities, reigned around cleanliness.

main center of accumulation and development of theoretical knowledge about what constitutes the history of hygiene, became the Ancient Greece.

contribution of Hippocrates

ancient Greece famous for its beautiful people.After all, it did focus the people of Greece.Physical development and maintenance of power natrenirovannosti and beauty of the body - it was very important for every Hellene.The basic rules of hygiene in this period were:

  • a healthy and well-nourished;
  • physical beauty of the body;
  • exercises and training to develop strength and muscle.

All this is reflected in the works of the great philosopher, physician, scientist and thinker of the time of Hippocrates.In his work "On the air, water and soil," he makes it clear that he considered very important factors to maintain a normal state of health of a person is listed factors.He also believed that even plain water and the air is able to cure illnesses, if you are pure, healing.

Another of his work - "on a healthy lifestyle" - also confirms how much importance already at that time attached to the elementary rules of hygiene and sanitization.

Discipline in the Middle Ages

history of hygiene in this period, as well as the formation of all the other sciences, has undergone stagnation.In many countries, was considered indecent to wash and clean your clothes and shelter, people are free to sewage poured directly from the windows of the houses on the street.In these times of rampant epidemic diseases such as plague, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, cholera and so on.

Only a few countries (the Ottoman Empire, China, Japan and Russia) continue to receive due attention span.Steam baths, hammams, baths - all of these were facilities for washing the body.

However, almost all of Europe suffered from unhygienic conditions.There have been massive syphilis, eye diseases, smallpox, typhus.Everywhere were the war, he was strong feudalism and serfdom.

development of health as a science in the XV-XVII centuries

Starting from the XV century in many countries began to gradually revive interest in hygiene.Again, there are water pipes, streets are laid out with stone, sewage merge in specially designated areas.Washing is no longer considered to be a manifestation of stupidity and of belonging to the lower classes.On the contrary, there were baths, which are filled with scented water.Everywhere began to make soap with the addition of aromatic oils.

number of outbreaks has decreased, but still the situation was still extremely unfavorable.The first person of the time dared to justify theoretically the importance of hygiene, was Italian Bernardino Ramazzini.It was he who created the work "Discourse on diseases of craftsmen", which showed the dependence of human health from the environment.

XVIII-XIX century in the history of hygiene

history of the development of science of hygiene in this period of sharply grows.It starts to build numerous cities, infrastructure is changing.People feared outbreaks, so carefully monitor the cleanliness and just isolated cases.

During this period begin to develop such sciences as physics, chemistry, biology, microbiology.It leaves its mark on hygiene.Now, health is considered only in conjunction with the state of the environment can not be separated from it.The influence of air, soil composition, the quality of drinking water, food, cleanliness and hygiene in the general physical condition of the person.

What else can we tell the story of hygiene?Modern science has its origin may be required by German physician Pettenkofer.He opened the first department of health at the Department of the University of Munich, so is considered to be the father of the discipline.

historical past of hygiene in Russia

history of hygiene in Russia went its own, special way.Approximately 300 years before it happened in Europe, Russia has paid tribute to both practical and experimental hygiene.Outstanding scientists, who made a great contribution to the development of this science began:

  • Pies;
  • the wise;
  • Zakhar'in;
  • Dobroslavin;
  • Erismann;
  • Khlopin;
  • Nicholas;
  • Osipov;
  • Belousov;
  • Solovyev, and many others.

most intensive development was only hygiene in XIX-XX centuries.It was then determined the disease and human ailments that are associated with the environment.