Palestinian problem is one of the most difficult issues for the world community.It originated in 1947 and formed the basis of the Middle East conflict, the development of which is observed till now.
Brief History of Palestine
origins of the Palestinian problem must be sought in ancient times.Then the area was the scene of bitter struggle between Mesopotamia, Egypt and Phoenicia.When King David was to create a strong Jewish state with its center in Jerusalem.But in II.BC.e.here the Romans invaded.They looted the state and gave him a new name - Palestine.As a result, the Jewish population was forced to migrate, and soon settled in different areas and mixed with the Christians.
in VII.Palestine was subjected to Arab conquest.Their domination in the area lasted for almost 1,000 years.In the second half of XIII - beginning of XVI century.Palestine was a province of Egypt, who reigned at the time of the Mamluk dynasty.After that, the territory became part of the Ottoman Empire.By the end of the XIX century., the area with the center in Jerusalem, which was under the direct control of Istanbul.
establishment of the British Mandate
emergence of the Palestinian problem with politics in England, so you should consider the history of the establishment of the British mandate in this area.
During the First World War was published the Balfour Declaration.In accordance with the United Kingdom it has a positive attitude to the creation of a national home for the Jews in Palestine.After that, the conquest of the country was sent a legion of volunteers Zionists.
In 1922 the League of Nations gave Britain a mandate to govern Palestine.It entered into force in 1923.
In the period from 1919 to 1923 in Palestine migrated about 35 thousand. Jews, and from 1924 to 1929 - 82 thousand.
situation in Palestine during the British Mandate
During the British Mandate, the Jewish and Arab communities were independentinternal policies.In 1920, the Haganah was formed (the structure responsible for the Jewish self-defense).The settlers in the Palestinian territories to build housing and roads, created by developing their economic and social infrastructure.This led to resentment of the Arabs, which were the result of anti-Jewish pogroms.It was at this time (1929) beginning to emerge Palestinian problem.British authorities in this situation, supported the Jewish population.However, the riots led to the need to limit their migration to Palestine, as well as the purchase of land here.The government even issued a so-called White Paper Passfilda.It is significantly limited the resettlement of Jews on Palestinian land.
situation in Palestine before World War II
After coming to power of Adolf Hitler in Germany, immigrated to Palestine, hundreds of thousands of Jews.In this regard, the Royal Commission has proposed to divide the British Mandate territory into two parts.So, to be created Jewish and Arab states.It was assumed that both parts of former Palestine are bound by treaty obligations with England.This proposal was supported by the Jews, but Arabs opposed.They demanded the formation of a single state, which guaranteed the equality of all ethnic groups.
in 1937-1938.held war between Jews and Arabs.After graduation (in 1939) was designed by the British authorities MacDonald White Paper.It contained a proposal to create in 10 years a single state where Arabs and Jews will take part in the government.Zionists denounced MacDonald White Paper.On the day of its publication held Jewish demonstrations, Haganah fighters committed pogroms important strategic objects.
during World War II
After coming to power, Churchill Haganah militants actively participated on the side of the UK in military operations in Syria.Once disappeared the threat of invasion of Nazi troops into the territory of Palestine, the Irgun (a clandestine terrorist organization) revolted against England.After the war, Britain restricted the entry of Jews to the country.In this regard, it has teamed up with the Haganah Irgun.They created a movement "of the Jewish resistance."Members of these organizations raided strategic objects, made an attempt on the representatives of the colonial administration.In 1946, militants blew up all the bridges, linking Palestine with neighboring states.
the establishment of Israel.The emergence of the Palestinian problem
In 1947, the United Nations submitted a plan for the partition of Palestine, as Britain said it could not control the situation in the country.A commission was formed of 11 states.By decision of the UN General Assembly, after May 1, 1948, it ceases to have effect when the British mandate of Palestine should be divided into two states (Jewish and Arab).Thus Jerusalem should be under international control.This UN plan was adopted by a majority vote.
May 14, 1948 was proclaimed an independent state of Israel.Exactly one hour before the end of the British Mandate in Palestine, David Ben Gurion made public the text of the "Declaration of Independence".
Thus, despite the fact that the background of the conflict outlined above, the emergence of the Palestinian problem associated with the creation of the State of Israel.
The next day after the proclamation of Israel's decision to create on its territory invaded by the troops of Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt and Trans-Jordan.The purpose of these Arab countries was the destruction of the newly formed state.The Palestinian problem has worsened due to the new circumstances.In May 1948, it was created by the IDF (Israel Defense Forces).It should be noted that the new US-backed government.Because of this, in June 1948, Israel began the offensive.The fighting ended only in 1949. During the war, under the control of Israel to West Jerusalem and much of the Arab territories.
Suez campaign of 1956
After the first war, the problem of formation of Palestinian statehood and the recognition of the independence of the Arabs of Israel has not disappeared, but has worsened.
In 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal.France and Great Britain began to prepare for the operation, the main strike force which was to deliver Israel.Military operations began in October 1956 in the Sinai Peninsula.By the end of November, Israel controlled almost all of its territory (including the Sharm el-Sheikh and the Gaza Strip).This situation has caused discontent of the USSR and the United States.By the beginning of 1957 the troops of Britain and Israel had withdrawn from the region.
In 1964, Egyptian President initiated the establishment of "Palestine Liberation Organization" (PLO).In its policy document said that the partition of Palestine into parts is illegal.In addition, the PLO did not recognize the state of Israel.
Six Day War
June 5, 1967 the three Arab countries (Egypt, Jordan and Syria) have brought their troops to the Israeli border, blocked the way to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal.The armed forces of these countries have a considerable advantage.The same day, Israel launched "Operation Moked" and sent troops to Egypt.In a matter of days (from 5 to 10 June) under the control of Israel to the entire Sinai Peninsula, Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, and the Golan Heights.It should be noted that Syria and Egypt have accused Britain and the United States to participate in the hostilities on the side of Israel.However, this assumption was refuted.
«Yom Kippur War»
Israeli-Palestinian problem has become aggravated after the Six Day War.Egypt has repeatedly attempted to regain control of the Sinai Peninsula.
In 1973 a new war.Sixth of October (Day of Atonement in the Jewish calendar) Egypt sent troops into the Sinai and the Syrian army occupied the Golan Heights.IDF was able to quickly repel and expel Arab units from those territories.Peace Agreement was signed on 23 of October (the mediators in the talks were the United States and the USSR).
in 1979 between Israel and Egypt signed a new contract.Under the control of the Jewish state remained the Gaza Strip, the Sinai returned to the former owner.
«Peace for Galilee»
main goal of Israel in this war was the elimination of the PLO.By 1982, southern Lebanon was created by the support base of the PLO.On its territory were constantly shelling Galilee.June 3, 1982 terrorist attempt was made on the Israeli ambassador in London.
June 5, the IDF carried out a successful operation, during which the Arab side were defeated.Israel won the war, but the Palestinian issue greatly deteriorated.It was caused by the deterioration of the situation of the Jewish state in the international arena.
search for a peaceful settlement of the conflict in 1991
Palestinian problem in international relations played a significant role.It affects the interests of many countries, including Britain, France, the USSR, USA and others.
In 1991, the Madrid Conference took place, designed to resolve the Middle East conflict.Its organizers were the United States and the Soviet Union.Their efforts have been made to ensure that the Arab countries (parties to the conflict) made peace with the Jewish state.
Understanding the essence of the Palestinian problem, the United States and the Soviet Union offered Israel withdraw from the occupied territories.They advocated the maintenance of the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people and security for the Jewish state.The Madrid conference was attended for the first time all aspects of the Middle East conflict.In addition, there has been developed a formula for future negotiations, "peace in exchange for territories".
talks in Oslo
next attempt to resolve the conflict have been secret talks between the delegations of Israel and the PLO, which took place in August 1993 in Oslo.Mediator they spoke Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs.Israel and the PLO announced the recognition of each other.In addition, the latter undertook to abolish section Charter, which requires the destruction of the Jewish state.The talks culminated in the signing in Washington of the Declaration of Principles.The document called for the introduction of self-government in the Gaza Strip for a period of 5 years.
In general, the negotiations in Oslo did not bring significant results.Nor was proclaimed the independence of the Palestinian refugees to return to their ancestral territory, has not been defined the status of Jerusalem.
Palestinian problem at the present stage
Since the beginning of the two thousandth years the international community has repeatedly attempted to settle the Palestinian problem.In 2003, it developed a three-stage plan "Roadmap".He assumed full and final settlement of the Middle East conflict by 2005.To do this, planned to create a viable democratic state - Palestine.This project was approved by both parties of the conflict and still retains its status as the only formal action plan for peaceful settlement of the Palestinian problem.
However, today this region is one of the most "explosive" in the world.The problem not only remains unsolved, but also occasionally significantly exacerbated.