You can find many references about the use of alcoholic beverages by soldiers to achieve a particular effect in combat.But where did this habit in the Russian army, who approved it, and how alcohol affects the combat capability of the soldiers?And what is "narkomovskie 100 grams"?It is necessary to understand, because what vodka in the Red Army has been from the beginning - a fact not to be questioned.
History of alcohol rules
known that the first Russian soldiers ordered alcohol issue Emperor Peter I. Then it was called "bread wine".The point was that during the campaign the soldiers occasionally drank wine, the same officers, on request, we can replace it with cognac.Depending on the severity of this rate hike could increase or decrease.With that, everything was pretty strict.Thus, the quartermaster, who did not care about the timely supply of the alcohol could even deprive the head.It was believed that this undermines the morale of the troops.
tradition picked up by many Russian tsars and emperors, while it many times to amend and supplement.Under Nicholas I, for example the wine gave out guard units in fortresses and cities.This combatant ranks received three servings a week, non-combatant - two.The hikes were drinking vodka, which had previously been diluted with water and crackers seized.Officers also been taken to give tea with rum.In winter are more relevant sbiten and wine.
little else was in the Navy - there certainly were given glass of sailor, ie 125 grams of vodka a day, but for offenses sailor deprived of this opportunity.For merits - on the contrary, gave a double or triple dose.
How did "narkomovskie program"
story of alcohol rules in the Soviet Army, which was called "narkomovskie 100 grams" originates from the People's Commissar (People's Commissar) Military and Naval Affairs of the USSR - Kliment Voroshilov.During the Finnish War, he asked Stalin to permit the issuance of the troops of alcohol for the purpose of warming the personnel in severe frosts.Indeed, when the temperature on the Karelian Isthmus reached 40 degrees below zero.Also Commissar argued that it is possible to raise the morale of the army.And Stalin agreed.Since 1940, alcohol became to enter the army.Before the battle, the soldiers drank 100 grams of vodka and have seized it 50 grams of fat.Tankers then relied twice the norm, and all the pilots were given brandy.As this met with approval among the soldiers, the rate began to be called "Voroshilov".Since the time of administration (January 10) for the month of March 1940 the soldiers drank about 10 tons of vodka and about 8 tons of cognac.
in the Great Patriotic War
the official "birthday" narkomovskih - June 22, 1941.Then, to our land came a terrible war of 1941-1945 - the Great Patriotic War.It was her first day Stalin signed an order under the number 562, which authorized the issuance of the soldiers before battle alcohol - half a cup of vodka per person (castle - 40 degrees).This applies to those who were directly in front.The same is assumed, and the pilots performing combat missions, as well as flight attendants composition airfields and engineers to technicians.Responsible for the execution of an order of the Supreme People's Commissar was the food industry, Anastas Mikoyan.Then for the first time, and the name sounded "narkomovskie 100 grams."Among the prerequisites was the distribution of the drink front commanders.Regulations for the supply of alcohol in tanks, then poured vodka into cans or drums and transported to the troops.It was, of course, limit: not allowed to carry more than 46 tanks per month.Naturally, such a demand fell away in the summer, and in winter, spring and autumn has been the norm to date.
possible that the idea of issuing retreating parts vodka psychological attacks prompted the Germans: drunken soldiers went on a full-length machine guns, openly.It produces a strong effect on and so be disadvantaged by Soviet troops.
further application of standards in the troops
In connection with the defeat of the Red Army near Kharkov adjustments were made to the order of the Supreme Commander.Now, it was decided to differentiate the issuance of vodka.From June 1942 it was planned to give the alcohol only in those parts that have been successful in the battles against the Nazi invaders.This "narkomovskaya" rule should be increased to 200 grams.But Stalin decided that the issue can only parts vodka, leading the offensive.The others could see it except on holidays.
In connection with the fighting at Stalingrad GKO decided to restore the old rate - now at 100 grams were issued to everyone who was at the forefront of the attack.But there were also new features: the dose received and also with mortar gunners, which provides support for infantry attack.A little less - 50 grams - pour logistical services, namely, reservists, building troops and wounded.Transcaucasian Front, for example, used, because of its placement, or port wine (200 and 300 grams respectively).During the last month of fighting in 1942, he was drunk a lot.Western Front, for example, to "destroy" a million liters of vodka Transcaucasian - 1.2 million liters of wine, Stalingrad - 407 thous. Liters.
Already in 1943 (April) issue of alcohol rules changed again.The GKO number 3272 states that the mass issuing of vodka in the parts will be discontinued, and the rate will be put only to those units that conduct offensive operations at the front.All others received "narkomovskie program" only on holidays.Issuance of alcohol was now on the conscience of councils of the fronts or armies.By the way, these were under the limit of the troops, as the NKVD and rail, as the consumption of alcohol was very large.
Many veterans reminiscing, saying that this rule does not exist everywhere.In some parts, such as it was granted only on paper, but in reality - no distribution of alcohol was not.Others, on the contrary, show that it is practiced, and in large quantities.So the true state of things not known for certain.
final issuance of rules was abolished due to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945.However, Soviet troops so fond of this kind of regulations that tradition has been preserved until the collapse of the Soviet Union.In particular, so did the Afghan military contingent.Of course, such a thing is done in secret, as the command would not pat on the head men for drinking alcohol during the fighting.
similar cases in the world
Mentioning such alcohol norm in the Red Army, it should also be said that the Wehrmacht, against which it fought, and not extremely sober.In the composition of the soldiers' most massive liquor was schnapps, and the officers drank champagne, which comes from France.And if we do not take into account the alcohol, other substances also does not disdain.So, in order to maintain alertness during the fighting, the soldiers took drugs - "methamphetamine", for example, or "Isophane."The first is called "pentsershokolade" - "Chocolate Tank".It sold openly, with soldiers often asked their parents to send them "methamphetamine".
results and implications of
What gave alcohol to the war?On this question, on closer examination, we can give a dozen different answers.Which of them will be closest to the truth?
As stated in the decision and alcohol were given winter to warm the frozen soldiers.However, any physician will confirm that alcohol only gives the appearance of warming, in reality the situation does not change.
Also, knowing what effect alcohol has on the human brain, it could be argued that it took to raise morale.After all, in many situations when needed initiative or recklessness of the soldiers, they extinguished the instinct of self-preservation.Narkomovskaya vodka effectively suppress this feeling, along with the basic fears.But it also blunted reflexes, perception, and participate in a drunken fight - not the best idea.That is why many experienced fighters before the fight deliberately refused to drink.And, as it turns out later, they acted correctly.
the influence of alcohol on the psyche and the physical condition of
addition, vodka has provided effective action in the event that the human psyche is subjected to severe stress, as often happens in war.Many fighters alcohol was saved from strong nervous shock, or even madness.However, we can confidently say, positively or negatively affected by alcohol in the war on the army.
Yes, vodka, even if it has all the positive qualities of the above, yet bore damage.One can only imagine the extent of the losses of the army, because alcohol intoxication in battle almost always meant certain death.Furthermore, one can not lose sight of the fact of the constant use of alcohol, which might cause alcoholism, and in some cases death.Disciplinary offense is not written off.So "narkomovskie 100 grams" have both positive and negative sides.
In the Soviet Union never kept drinking.All the more surprising that it, albeit in a limited form, practiced in the armed forces.After all, since 1938, carried out several times larger campaign against alcoholism in the army.Many of the top team or party officials were investigating the case just on the fact of excessive drinking.Accordingly, the issuance and use of liquor kept under strict control.For drunkenness at the wrong time could easily be sent to a penal battalion, if not to shoot without trial, particularly at this time of the war of 1941-1945.
postwar use of the army
addition to illegal cases still existed official rate of alcohol - in the Navy.Battle crews underwater nuclear submarines relied daily rate of dry wine (also 100 grams).But, as under Stalin, gave him only during the military campaign.
reflection term in the art
Somehow "narkomovskie 100 grams" is very well established in the art.Already at that time it was possible to hear the songs with mention of alcohol rate.And the film has not spared this phenomenon - in many films you can see how the soldiers before battle upset glass and shouting "For the Motherland! For Stalin!"go on the offensive.