Underestimating the enemy - always a big mistake even on the football field, not to mention the great war.In an effort to win over the Soviet Union in the shortest possible time, to realize the so-called blitzkrieg, the supreme command of Nazi Germany miscalculated.The first successes turned the head of the Wehrmacht: German troops near Moscow appeared almost at the end of the summer, and must have been Hitler thought that the trick is done.But the capital proved too tough for him.It was one of those turning points that have dramatically changed the course of the war and the German victorious march turned into shameful flight, which ended with the suicide of the Fuhrer.
When the Earth rotates back
Already exhausted fighting and continuous retreat of the Red Army was supposed to feel, according to the Germans, breakdown.However, the Nazis themselves exhausted.Whatever loss or carried Soviet troops, in the courage they could not refuse.After the shock of the first days of the war for every inch of his native land, the Red Army fought fiercely.
heroic defense of the city (such as the legendary Mogilev) - the best evidence.The ease with which the Germans moved east, was largely apparent.The losses were great, but the Wehrmacht believed that the defenders of Moscow are in even more demoralized state.Despite the fact that the beginning of winter, it became clear that the front was stretched, the forces are scattered, the Germans still intended to launch an offensive near Moscow: the capture of the capital was important not only military, but also psychological.
Soviet government understood the risks, and it is apparent that the idea to do the example of Kutuzov - burn the city and deliver it to the enemy - in some minds wandered, and quite aggressively.Back in early October, there was a plan to destroy Moscow Metro: station was supposed to undermine and equipment - dismantle cars - take out the rear.On October 15, the General Staff of Defense adopted a decision on the evacuation of the capital, and the 16th for the first (and only) time in history has opened the Moscow metro.The city crept ominous rumors of the population panicked.
ordered the destruction of the subway has been canceled in the evening on October 16, Stalin decided to stay.Meanwhile, at the front of the case still were not going well.It reported breakthroughs fascists who met in December 1941 at Moscow, and it seemed that the Wehrmacht was about to take a final effort and ensures a victory.In fact, it turned out differently.Not willing to give up the Soviet Union clung to every bump.The front stretched a thousand kilometers, and despite the fact that the Germans were the main forces are concentrated in the east (to be honest, not too resisted Europe), by the end of autumn, it became clear that the impudence to conquer the Soviet Union failed.
Preparing for an offensive
Meanwhile, the Soviet command did not lose the gift of time and prepared a large-scale offensive of the Red Army near Moscow.In the middle of fall, not in favorable conditions, when there was intense fighting, the Supreme Command found a way to create a pool of a dozen armies and strengthen already fighting.This puts more emphasis on the fact that the new forces are not meant to be protected, but quite the contrary.They spend very sparingly, and officers received clear orders to his subordinates to prepare for battle under attack.
By late autumn, it became clear that the Wehrmacht was exhausted: rapid advance petered out, and on some stretches of the front, Soviet troops managed to inflict serious damage to the Nazis, forcing to forget about the imminent celebration of the capture of Moscow.The Soviet form began to catch up in places where supposed to act.Strengthened the right and left flanks of the Western Front, which meant a lead role in the upcoming operation: for example, more than two thirds of all aircraft that is involved at Moscow, goes to help Zhukov.
successful beginning of operation
It was important to determine when to start a counter-offensive of the Red Army near Moscow, and I must say that in this matter the Soviet command was shown outstanding military talent.As they say, the brilliant military leader who knows how to make decisions not only quickly but also correctly.At the beginning of winter circumstances it was could not be more successful.The necessary line of protective structures did not exist, and the appropriate command has been received (it will go, but only on December 8 when the offensive troops near Moscow continued for the third day, and precious time was hopelessly lost).
Under the plan the operation the Western Front was to inflict a series of punches to throw back the enemy on the right and left wing (the direction of Solnechnogorsk, Istra, Klin, Bogoroditsk and units).
compounds of the Southwestern Front were to advance to the dace, and, if successful, to develop it in Orel.Third Front, who participated in the operation - Kalinin - received a combat mission to move towards settlement and Mikulin Turginovo with the prospect to be in the enemy's rear.
Air Force also faced a difficult task: on the one hand, to support the offensive of the Soviet troops near Moscow, on the other - to protect the capital from the bombings that have become familiar to the citizens from the first day of the war.On aircraft assigned as an important intelligence activities.In general, the Air Force played an enormous role in the operation, in large part determine the outcome of battles.
balance of forces
Despite the fact that the strengthening of all three fronts involved in the operation, was given the highest priority, the superiority of the Nazis was still evident.Soviet troops were inferior in numbers and (especially) arms.
the disposal team offensive was at least six hundred thousand personnel (1.7 - fascists, 1.1 - the Red Army), only 7.6 thousand. Guns and mortars against 13.5 thousand. Germans, 774tank against 1.17 thousand. enemy.Superiority was only in aviation: German aircraft - 615, Soviet - 1000. But even in this ointment fly in the ointment was present, because more than half (about 53%) of the aircraft of the Red Army were members of the old, not too effective, modifications.
suffered the brunt of the flanks of the German "Center".During the protracted battles they were in the most disadvantaged: almost all sides surrounded by Soviet troops.
main trump card was the surprise: the beginning of a counter-offensive was a complete surprise to the enemy.It should be noted that preparations for the strike was conducted in the strictest secrecy, and there were no Germans neither the means nor the luck to scout out the plans of the Soviet rate.
Large military experts - both domestic and foreign - acknowledge that Moscow Strikes Back is largely made possible by the very successful start of the operation.Exhausted enemy's army was exhausted, had no time to become stronger.The configuration of the front line, in which the flanks of the enemy were practically surrounded, gave the best opportunities of the Red Army - and she took advantage of them.
first 5 December in the predawn gloom, attacked the compound of the Kalinin Front, the next day, supported by the troops of the Western and South-Western.Initially moved slowly experienced the Germans managed to impose a fine opponents fighting for every point reinforced.The movement hindered and snow drifts: should move away from the beaten track, and maneuver becomes very problematic.Complicating matters for the fact that the Battle of Moscow in 1941-1942.It was the first major offensive of the Red Army: Soviet soldiers before ever acquire quite the opposite experience, unable to provide help.
Nevertheless enemy hordes to drop out - albeit with difficulty and with great sacrifice.On the first day of fighting some of the compounds was able to cross the Volga and threaten the enemy rear.
build on the success of the Red Army counter-offensive by Moscow started to rapidly increase the pace on the second day after its inception.1st and 30th Army were moving quite briskly in the direction of Klina, 20 I pursued the enemy in the direction of Solnechnogorsk and 16th - in the Istra.Once successfully moving towards Tula.The 10th Army, supported by cavalry and tanks unexpectedly quickly advancing on Stalinogorsk.
The rapid development has brought some confusion in the hitherto slender ranks of the enemy, seemingly invincible.Do not expect a clear resistance to Hitler, the Soviet Union was not prepared to react quickly and correctly.The result was a Moscow Strikes Back.Only 8 December to the Fuhrer, as they say, realized that martial successes of the enemy - the phenomenon is not episodic and accidental, but a carefully planned and well-prepared.Directive number 39, he directed his gallant troops move to the defensive throughout the Eastern Front.
cause of failure is far-reaching plans to call all the same legendary Russian winter, which even Napoleon could tell a lot of interesting.Her offensive Herr Adolf some reason called "premature", referred to the difficulties in the supply, which is why the battle for Moscow and had no success.Take the offensive ordered only Army Group "South", and then only if the weather is conducive.But in November the 41st frost does not reach 6 degrees, the cold was only at the beginning of December (was 28 degrees below zero), but as they say, the field is the same for all.Yes, and it was premature to talk about winter December 5 somehow not very correct.
valleys and plateaus
Meanwhile, the advance continued, but he was not satisfied with the pace of the Supreme Headquarters.Then it was decided to pay less attention to the rearguard, let fights to circumvent the retreating German troops and cause sudden shocks in the rear.Mobile units, specially formed in a number of armies, have greatly increased the effectiveness of: a counter-offensive of the Red Army near Moscow was much more successful.Now, every fortified position has not rested, and avoided her and rushed forward, leaving the German rearguard in their own home front, where his fate was already sealed.
For four days, from 6 to 10 December, Soviet troops liberated almost fifty settlements.Many tanks, guns, cars and motorcycles enemies throwing retreating.
December 13 Sovinformburo finally able to say something nice to their citizens.The good news, of course, raised the morale of the Red Army and inspire hope to the civilian population of the country, which followed its progress with bated breath.
big success was the local victory at Kalinin, where the 31 th Army managed to cut virtually all means of communication for the Nazis.When the 30th Army of the Western Front is very close to the river.Lame, the Germans left the city, fearing encirclement.
Inspired by the success, the Soviet troops so Knock the enemy, that the retreat turned into a stampede: almost all the equipment was in the hands of Soviet soldiers.December 16, Kalinin had controlled the Red Army.
local successes strategic victory
A month after the offensive began on 7 January 1942, the connection of the Kalinin Front came to Rzhev, Selizharovo and claw, taking a strategic location to the north of the distress of the German group "Center".
Successful actions were the Western Front, who, overcoming resistance, and sometimes quite fierce, inexorably moving forward.December 12 released Solnechnogorsk, 15th - Wedge, 20th - Volokolamsk.
Morale retreating often leaves much to be desired.Apparently, not in vain, December 16, Hitler found it necessary to supplement its own directive number 39 order which enjoined to defend a "fanatical tenacity" to hold at any cost, and so on. D.
act whether the order, or the Germans came to their senses, but they managed to gain a foothold innatural boundary rivers Lama and Ruza.All attempts have failed to overcome the resistance.I had the Red Army to stay there and gain a foothold in the conquered positions.
guerrillas had great help, without which the victory of Moscow could be given a much heavier.They attacked the retreating Nazi side, destroying the German warehouses, conducted reconnaissance, obtaining valuable information.
On the left wing of the Army of the Western Front began its offensive in the direction of Kaluga - a major transport hub.It is clear that such an outcome is not satisfied with the Germans.Command "Center", the decision was made to gain a foothold on the Oka and hold the line at all costs, as, indeed, and told the Fuhrer's favorite.
liberation from the occupation
Zhukov knew how events will unfold, so ordered to pursue the enemy, not letting him rest and to gain a foothold.During a combat mission the 49th Army, breaking the resistance of the Nazis, December 19 took Tarusa.It was possible it is not immediately - even had an unexpected blow from behind.
Meanwhile, the 50th Army was moving to Kaluga.Best mobile unit rushed into the city even on December 21, but the Germans were not born yesterday.Just nine days later, on December 30, Kaluga was released jointly by the 49th and 50th armies.
by 8 January were released Kozelsk, Belev, Meshchovsk and hundreds of other smaller settlements.The Red Army crossed the Oka fearlessly.The Battle of Moscow (1942) was won.However, there were still years and years of war.
not dropped esprit de corps soldiers who fought in the armies of the Southwestern Front.Ten days after the operation, they have advanced a hundred kilometers to the west and reached the bank of the river.Kshen, seizing hundreds of pieces of enemy military equipment.Almost four hundred towns and villages (including dace and Ephraim), get rid of the occupation.
course, the Germans were not going to surrender.Nevertheless, December 26th they left Naro-Fominsk, 28th - Balabanovo, January 2 - Maloyaroslavets, and 4-go- Borovsk.
Exodus and the importance of the battle
By January 8, 1942 Battle of Moscow, in short, has been won, and won brilliantly.The troops reached the line Selizharovo - Ruza - Mtsensk Germans and drove an average of 200 km from Moscow.As a result of the operation were released more than a thousand settlements, the environment has become impossible Tula.For a month, during which continued the battle for Moscow, the Germans suffered huge losses - nearly two hundred thousand personnel (168 thousand. Only ground forces).11 tanks were broken and more than twenty infantry divisions.
important condition for success was the good coordination of the three fronts and support aircraft - then the command has shown the talent and excellent training.
Soviet soldiers became very clear that the rumors about the "invincibility" of Hitler's army, which has put on his knees almost the whole of Europe, no more than a myth.With German tanks "burn for a sweet soul," and the soldiers are able to retreat to a "commendable" swiftness.
course, very important it was that the enemy failed to capture the capital of the state.Moscow during the war (and not only) was not just a city, but also a symbol of resistance of the Soviet state.
successes of Soviet troops forced more active allies of the USSR.Suppose that the second front was opened only in 1944, it is hardly fair to assert that the technical and other assistance was superfluous.
The potential helpers of the Third Reich Hitler's defeat near Moscow, on the contrary, made freeze in anticipation Thus, some sources claim that Turkey and Japan in the case of the capture of Moscow were willing to openly join the war against the Soviet Union.After the fiasco, which suffered the Germans hid treacherous allies, preferring to refrain from taking action.
difficult to overestimate the value of the counter-offensive: first, it was the first large-scale offensive of the Red Army.From a strategic and psychological point of view it was a big breakthrough.Many military historians believe that it was the Battle of Moscow briefly but succinctly can be called "the turning point of the war", which has predetermined its outcome.Millions of people came last hope of the continent.
But most importantly, the victory of the faith instilled in the hearts of the soldiers themselves.They finally saw what really can resist the Germans.And not just to hold the position, and to win the lost territories.