Socialization is a complex social and psychological processes by which man is the assimilation of knowledge, norms and values that define it as a full-fledged member of society.It is a continuous process and a prerequisite for the optimum of life of the individual.
socialization of preschool children in the GEF to
According to the federal state educational standards of preschool education (GEF), socialization and communicative personality development preschooler considered as a single educational area - social and communicative development.As the dominant factor of social development advocates social environment.
main aspects of socialization
socialization process begins with the appearance of man on earth, and continues until the end of his life.
includes two main aspects:
- assimilation of social experience by the individual at the expense of its entry into the social system of social relations;
- active reproduction of social relations of the individual in the process of inclusion in the social environment.
structure of socialization
Speaking of socialization we are dealing with a certain shift in the social experience of the values and attitudes of a particular subject.Moreover, the individual himself is an active subject of perception and application of experience.The main components of socialization decided to attribute the transfer of cultural norms through social institutions (family, school, etc.), as well as the process of mutual influence of individuals within the framework of the joint venture.Thus, among the areas to be addressed the process of socialization, isolated activity, communication and self-awareness.For all these areas there is an expansion of human relationships with the environment.
The concept of ANLeontiev activity in psychology is the active interaction of the individual with the surrounding reality, in which the subject is focused on the impact on the object, thus satisfying their needs.Activities to distinguish between several features: methods of implementation, a form of emotional stress, and other physiological mechanisms.
The main difference between the different types of activities is the specificity of the subject, which is aimed at a particular type of activity.Subject of activity can act in the material and in perfect shape.Thus for each data object is a definite need.It should also be noted that no one type of activity can not exist without a motive.Unmotivated activities, in terms of ANLeontiev, a contingent concept.In reality, the motive is still the case, however, it may carry latent.
basis of all activities constitute separate actions (processes defined by conscious purpose).
Scope of communication
Scope of communication and scope are closely linked.In some psychological concepts of communication is seen as a side activity.At the same time the activity can act as the conditions under which the communication process can be carried out.The enlargement process of communication occurs during the individual to increase his contacts with others.These contacts, in turn, can be set during the execution of certain joint action - that is, during the activity.
level contacts in the process of socialization of the individual is determined by its individual psychological characteristics.A significant role here also plays age specifics of the subject of communication.Deepening dialogue carried out in the process of decentration (shift from monologue to the dialogical form).The individual learns to focus on your partner, on a more precise his perception and evaluation.
third area of socialization, self-identity is formed by the formation of his self-image.Experimentally, it was found that I-images arise in an individual immediately, but are formed in the course of his life under the influence of various social factors.The structure of the I-individual includes three main components: self-knowledge (cognitive component), the assessment itself (emotional) attitude toward themselves (behavioral).
Self-consciousness determines the understanding of themselves as a person of some integrity, awareness of their own identity.The development of self-awareness in the process of socialization is controlled, is in the process of acquisition of social experience in a wide range of activities and communication.Thus, the development of self-consciousness can not pass out the activity in which the transformation is carried out continuously notions of personality about himself in accordance with the view emerging in the eyes of others.
process of socialization, thus, should be considered from the perspective of the unity of all three spheres - as an activity, and communication and awareness.
Features of social and communicative development in the preschool
social-communicative development of preschool children is one of the basic elements in the formation of the child's personality.The process of interaction with adults and peers influence not only directly on the social side of the preschool child, but also on the formation of his mental processes (memory, thinking, speech, and others.).The level of development in the preschool years is directly proportional to the level of efficiency of its subsequent adaptation in society.
social-communicative development of the GEF for preschoolers includes the following options:
- level of formation of a sense of belonging to their family, respect for others;
- level of development of the child's communication with adults and peers;
- child's level of readiness to work together with their peers;
- level of assimilation of social norms and rules, moral development of the child;
- level of focus and self-reliance;
- level of formation of positive attitudes towards work and creativity;
- level of knowledge creation in the field of health and safety (in a variety of social and environmental conditions);
- level of intellectual development (social and emotional problems) and the development of the scope of empathy (sympathy, compassion).
quantitative level of social and communicative development of preschool children
Depending on the degree of development of skills that define the social and communicative development of the GEF, you can select low, medium and high levels.
high level, respectively, takes place at a high degree of the above parameters.At the same time one of the enabling environment in this case is a factor the lack of problems in the child's communication with adults and peers.The dominant role played by the nature of the relationship in the family preschooler.Also, have a positive effect on employment and social-communicative development of the child.
average level that determines social and communicative development, characterized by lack of formation of skills on some of the selected indicators, generating in turn, difficulty in the child's communication with others.However, the lack of development of the child can make up for their own, with little help from an adult.In general, the process of socialization is relatively harmonious.
In turn, the social and communicative development of preschool children with low levels of severity for some of the selected options can generate considerable controversy in the field of communication with the child's family and others.In this case, a preschooler is unable to cope with the problem on their own - need assistance from adults, including psychologists and social workers.
In any case, the socialization of children of preschool age requires constant maintenance and periodic monitoring by both the child's parents and the educational institution.
social-communicative competence of the child
social-communicative development in the preschool is aimed at developing children's social and communicative competence.In total there are three core competencies that are necessary to seize the child within the institution: technology, information, social and communicative.
In turn, the social and communicative competence includes two aspects:
- Social - the ratio of own aspirations with the aspirations of others;productive interaction with members of the group with a common goal.
- Communicative - the ability to obtain the necessary information in the dialogue process;willingness to represent and defend their own point of view, the direct consideration the position of other people;the ability to use the resource in the communication process to address those or other problems.
modular system in the formation of social and communicative competence
social-communicative development within the educational establishment seems appropriate to follow in accordance with the following modules: medical module PMPC (psychological, medical and pedagogical consultation) and diagnostics, psychological, educational and social-pedagogichesky.The first work is included in the medical unit, and then, in the case of successful adaptation of children module PMPC.The other modules are run at the same time and continue to operate in parallel with the medical unit and the PMPC, until the release of children from preschool.
Each module implies certain professionals clearly acting in accordance with the tasks module.The process of the interaction between them is carried out by the management module to coordinate the activities of all departments.Thus, social and communicative development of children has support at all necessary levels - physical, mental and social.
Differentiation children in preschool within the module PMPC
As part of the psychological, medical and pedagogical consultation, which usually includes all the actors of the educational process DOW (educators, psychologists, senior nurses, managers, and others.), It is appropriate to differentiate the children the followingCategory:
- children with poor physical health;
- children belonging to the risk group (hyperactive, aggressive, closed, etc.);
- children with learning difficulties;
- children with pronounced skills in a particular area;
- children who do not have the features in development.
One of the challenges of working with each of the selected typological groups is to develop social and communicative competence as one of the most important categories, which supports the educational field.
social-communicative development - dynamic characteristic.The aim of this consultation is to monitor the dynamics in terms of the harmonious development.Appropriate consultation should be carried out on all the groups in preschool, including its content and social and communicative development.The middle group, for example, in the course of the program is included in the system of social relations by means of the following tasks:
- development of gaming activities;
- instilling basic rules and regulations of the child relationships with adults and peers;
- formation of patriotic feelings of the child, as well as family and nationality.
To implement these tasks in preschool must be special sessions on social and communicative development.During these sessions the transformation of the child's relationship to others and the ability to self-development.