What was Russia in the middle of the XIX century?

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begin my narration of the outstanding masters of the Word, born of the Russian land, with one remarkable episode.The event, which he himself fondly and gratefully remembered more than once.By Ivan Turgenev in a small railway station was approached by two young artisans and right about it not in front of them is the author of "Notes of a Hunter."Upon hearing an affirmative answer, they both bowed his times, saying that it is - a nod from the Russian people (in the middle - the end of XVIII century to know the summary of "Notes of a Hunter" was a sign of good taste).Believe me, dear readers, that this was not an impulsive act of young people.It was a profound demonstration of the personal role of the writer in the abolition of serfdom.

Let's move on to the characterization of the book.In the beginning, we note: on such a master level to write - poetry in prose - could only two people: Gogol and Turgenev.Revealing a summary of the "Notes of a Hunter" should begin with a poetic and subtle story of Turgenev "Polecat and Kalinych."Its main idea - to inter-caste friendship of two people - the lord and serf, probably, perhaps, only in Russia.Calm, measured logic landlord polecat harmoniously complemented Kalinych emotion.

protagonist of Turgenev, fastening together the song "Memoirs ..." - in love with his small home enlightened landlord of the Oryol province.On behalf of the traveler in native chernozems and expounds Turgenev "Notes of a Hunter."The content of the stories has many faces: the hunter overheard the boys who brought the horses at night ("Bezhin Meadow"), then tenderly tells of poignant folk song ("Singers"), then share the secret - of the enlightened person can be called the conscience of his native land, God's Wanderer Kasyanov Beautiful Swords.

Turgenev created so art-perfect and so beautiful, real images of peasants, petty bourgeois, commoners, that falls in love with them the attentive reader, but at the same time, "Notes of a Hunter" are true and lyrical book about the Russian people the mid XIX century.Landlordism was then the main form of farming.However, modern Ivan Sergeyevich landlords were his warehouse and domineering charisma is far from being Catherine nobleman ("Raspberry Water").Formulating a summary of the "Notes of a Hunter," we can say that in the XIX century serfdom itself completely exhausted.There was not much that scope, domestic landlords to manage their slaves practiced arraignment and punishment.

Serfs, in turn, have no rights.They can easily be hurt, to make unhappy, they can not to the extent appropriate to dispose of themselves and their lives.Not surprisingly, the deformed society, to turn people into slaves, serfs deprived of many social activities.Hopelessness often laborers has declined to drunkenness, lying, laziness.Often, keeping all the household it was put on the shoulders of women, while the men drank.And when life becomes unbearable, broke out blunt and brutal bloody riots.The original name of "Knocking!" The writer gave to one of his works.The idea of ​​the risk of an escalation of violence in society is a summary of the story."Notes of a Hunter" as it summarizes the ideological later allegorical story "Mumu": the mighty dumb people blindly obeys nearby, petty mistress.

Turgenev cycle of stories (finally published in 1852) played a prominent role in the liberation of the peasantry.Let us explain the last thought (after all, we already know the summary of the "Notes of a Hunter").Deeply lyricist Ivan Sergeyevich, undoubtedly aware of his duty to society.Although Turgenev was not a fan of biting, harsh language, denouncing the small-minded landowners tyrants, yet cruelty, close, moral bankruptcy landlords Zverkov, Stegunova, Penochkin displayed it to the full.He used a more powerful weapon - wrenching, soul-taker for the truth.The above series of stories, as evidenced by the chronicles made a deep impression on more than one occasion to read his Russian Emperor Alexander II.As you know, the people gratefully called this king, the abolition of serfdom, the Liberator.