Many people perceive almost everything that grows on the ground, like food, but this is a misconception.Most of the world's agricultural land is reserved for growing industrial crops.Every year more and more goods are produced because of them.And it's not just clothes.Soap, tires, drugs, cigarettes, construction materials and biofuels - it is not a complete list of features of such plants.The turnover in many countries industrial crops have the same great importance as oil, iron ore and gas.
Types of industrial crops
industrial crops - the raw material for this industry.For convenience, these cultures were classified on the basis of receipt of these materials ready.
- Starchy culture. are grown, as the name implies, for the sake of one starch.As a rule, it is contained in the tubers.Examples - potatoes, yams or sweet potatoes.
- Sahorosoderzhaschie culture. Plants that are grown for extraction of sucrose.The most famous in our country, representatives of such crops - sugar beet and sugar cane.But there are more rare plants, such as sugar maple, carob and chicory.
- Oilseeds. This is a large group of industrial crops.Typical of its representatives: sunflower, soybean, peanut, olive trees, castor, rapeseed, sesame and others.
- Essential oil. Plants containing volatile aromatic oils.The group is also enormous.Crops such as rose or lavender, are world-renowned raw material for the world of perfume and cosmetics industry.
- fibrous or spinning. This group includes and fiber crops.It flax, cotton, hemp, kenaf, sisal, ramie.
- rubberwood. most famous - hevea and guayule.
- Tonic. This group includes all the plants of which produce coffee, tea, cola, cocoa, tobacco.
- Cork or probkonosnye. These include cork oak and velvet Amur.
- Other groups: dyeing (Sophora, saffron, indigo), tannins (saxifrage, oak, spruce), guttaperchenosnye (euonymus, payena), medicinal culture.
cultivation of industrial crops
Industrial crops occupy a large area under cultivation in all countries.Before you grow one or the other of them, take into account not only the climate, but also the proximity of processing plants, the need in the market for raw materials, which is made from a particular culture.
In Russia, industrial crops are grown not too active as the natural conditions make them the cultivation time consuming and requires large investments.In Ukraine, the geographical position is favorable for industrial crops, actively growing sugar beet, sunflower and flax.
All grain and industrial crops require the use of special machines for cleaning and special tools.Typically this is also taken into account, preparing the area under certain culture.
Due to the growing interest of people to a healthy, environmentally friendly lifestyle growing many industrial crops bring additional profit to producers.As an example, lavender plantation in French Provence.Admire the flowering of this amazingly beautiful and fragrant plants attracts people from all over the world.For them, they organize celebrations and festivals that bring hefty extra income.
main technical culture in Russia
primarily in Russia actively cultivated such commercial crops like sunflowers.In the production of sunflower seeds, our country ranks second in the world (leading Argentina).This culture came to Russia under Peter I, along with potatoes.First sunflowers grown for decorative purposes, but then failed to appreciate the huge benefits of this plant.
Once the British had a monopoly on the production of sugar, as all crops of sugar cane belonged to them.Already in the eighteenth century, other countries began to look for, how to meet the needs of its market in sugar.As a result, in 1747 a German chemist Andreas Marggraf found sugar in sugar beet.Now, sugar beet is part of the main crops (technical) in many countries, but in Russia occupies one percent of all cultivated land.
Russia has long been famous for the production of flax.In Belarus and in Russia two thirds of cultivated flax fiber around the world.Russian cool and rainy summer - the perfect conditions for growing flax.Although this fiber crops, but linseed oil has a high nutritional value and is used for making high-quality paints.Linen fabrics are very strong, beautiful, they are used not only in the light, but in the air, as well as in the automotive industry.
Technical culture in the world
in the world each year is made more than 20 million tons of cotton.This is the main industrial crop in the world.One-fifth of the world's total harvested United States and China, ten percent of cultivated Pakistan and India, many cotton grown in Turkey, Uzbekistan, Egypt and Syria.One tonne of cotton fiber makes 400 kg, from which the three thousand meters of fabric.
India, China, Bangladesh and other Asian countries are famous for the cultivation of jute, sisal, supplying the world with sackcloth, ropes and coarse cloth.In South-East Asia is growing Hevea, used to make rubber products.
and dyeing Essential oil is grown in many countries.For example, almost all of the proportion of the world belongs to the collection of saffron Iran.This is not only a dye but also one of the most expensive spices in the world.In order to obtain a kilo of saffron, it is necessary to collect 200 thousand crocus.
It happens that technical crops become a symbol of the country.For example, rose in Bulgaria.In this country, in the Kazanlak Valley has the world-famous museum of roses.Produced nationally Bulgarian rose oil has brought worldwide fame.
popular in the world and such industrial crops as tobacco and hops.Cuban and Turkish tobacco smokers are appreciated all over the world, and Germany is famous for growing hops.
genetically modified crops and their potential
Soya - is currently the main industrial crop in the world.US scientists believe that this will be the main source of protein for mankind.US produces three-quarters of the world's soybeans.Every tenth of a ton of grain crops - is soy.It not only eat, but also used for technical needs.Soybean oil can be made of plastic, paint, biofuel.
Scientists are currently working on a wide use of such technical crops as lupine.Features it even wider than that of soybeans.This technical culture is surprisingly versatile: fibers provide excellent fabric quality, from a plant oil is obtained from the antioxidant properties of the roots make coffee.The world leader in the production of culture perspective - Australia.Gasoline
of industrial crops
oil reserves on earth come to an end, and scientists around the world are working to create the optimal biofuel.Look for the best technical culture for this purpose.
While the leaders in this field are soybeans, canola and cotton, but there are also lesser-known plants.Among them - the South American jatropha, Asclepias syriaca, kopayba, which grows in the tropics of the Amazon.In China, a plant found Sindor Klabra.Its juice lights as oil.
cultivation of industrial crops has long been beyond the traditional agriculture and transformed into a modern high-tech industries with great prospects.Those who understand this today, a lot to win tomorrow.