ants - are one of the most common insect in the world.According to some estimates, this family includes a little more than 12,400 species, of which more than 4,500 sub-species.But this figure is not final and is constantly growing.Considering how many species of ants exist in all the land, many interesting to know which of them are on the territory of Russia.
General familiarity with ants
From a biological point of view, ants are Hymenoptera.Their size is different, depending on the species.This social insects that live in colonies.They build their nests of fine particles in the soil or in wood.These families are well organized and have a high-quality communication systems to ensure that all their actions were well coordinated.Interestingly, several species of ants communicate in their own language, with which transmit complex information.Most of them have a symbiotic relationship with certain insects, plants, fungi and bacteria.
Each member of the colony knows his place and clearly fulfills their roles.
- females.It is the founder of the anthill.In most colonies only one female.She lays her eggs to her anthill constantly growing and growing.
- males.They are necessary for the fertilization of females.
- working individuals.Thanks to them, ant lives.They are building a house, protect it, clean it, provided with all the inhabitants of the food, take care of the larvae.
worth noting that males and females are equipped with wings, and the worker ants do not have them.Also, some species of ants have a stinger.
Once the female has been fertilized, it loses its wings and goes in search of the place where lay the foundation of their anthill of several rooms there and lay eggs.The male did not survive ever.The uterus nourishes the larvae using saliva.The first "party" emerged working individuals begin to engage in the construction and production of food.When you receive enough worker ants, the female is only concerned with laying eggs and care for larvae (white helpless worm) takes over the colony.After five molts are formed pupae, which stop feeding.They make adult females and working individuals.This process lasts for the entire growing season.Males spawn in the spring.
basic diet - is the juice of the plant secretions of aphids.But at the moment when they take care of larvae, ants eat other insects.
Ants: species in Russia and especially
known that these insects are able to adapt to different conditions and to settle any landscape.But each individual species has its own characteristics, and this is due not only to external characteristics.Each of them has its own differences in the behavior and lifestyles.So if you learn deeper about these insects, even those who live in our territory, they may seem to us no less interesting than those who live only in the tropics.We have already mentioned how many ant species in the world, so it is worth noting that more than 125 of these species is in Russian.But various sources, this figure varies, and sometimes up to 300. Most of them are familiar - a red forest, meadow, Pharaoh, pets, termites, and other Blankers.Consider some species of ants.Photo some insects will be made.
This species for their habitat selects the mixed coniferous and deciduous forests, which for over 40 years.Females and working different red-brown color.Their length of about 7-14 mm.The head of the ant has an oblong shape and a dense body.Males are black with reddish or yellowish legs.Their families are single, separated into three castes.One slot can consist of 800 thousand. Up to 1 million individuals.From May to the end of June to begin mating flights.What is surprising is that from eggs only, or individual workers, or male or female.All depends on the needs of the family.
This type of ant is able to harm fruit trees due to the fact that they are bred aphids.But they also benefit the gardens.These insects consume a lot of pests that cause damage to crops.Special attention is paid to those ants insects, which begins mass reproduction.It has been estimated that a large anthill these insects in a single day can bring up to 21 thousand pupae pests.Therefore, the only one able to defend the anthill approximately hectare pine forest.
Another type, common in Russia - a meadow.The size of this insect varies between 5-11 mm.In the meadow ant body is covered with villi, and the front of the breast there is a dark spot.For residential buildings, they select meadows and glades open edge.This species also breeds aphids.From ant to their "pasture" laid-depth track on which sheds made.These ants are walking paths for years.In addition to the secretions of aphids, these ant species feed on dead insects.Very rarely regale alive.
After the winter, as soon as the air warms up to 10 degrees, they crawl out of the anthill.At a temperature of 30 insects do not leave your home.Above it has been described as species of ants in the world, but all of them only do these departures for breeding twice a season.They fall in May and August.
This refers to the representative of the smallest ants.Their total length is 2-4 mm.They were first discovered in tombs in Egypt on mummies.Then Carl Linnaeus described them and gave them a name.This happened in 1758.The small size of these kids have helped to spread throughout the land.In Russia, they were seen in 1889.So this became known species of ants.In the world they are found in virtually every corner where there are people.
Usually they are yellow and dark abdomen.Males are almost always black and winged.This species is very hard-working, and in the north side of them live exclusively in human homes.They prefer the darkness and moisture, so often found in the crevices of floors, walls and other cavities.Because they are always warm, they do not hibernate and their colonies are growing.Usually their numbers - a few thousand.Further, for reproduction, they do not have to take off, and after fertilization working individuals bite off the wings of the uterus.In just one year the family grows two thousand inhabitants.Nest is divided, and so they are distributed throughout the area, growing in huge colonies.To deal with them is difficult because in one place may not be the one female.It is interesting that these inmates can not get along bedbugs because acids which come from Pharaoh ants are deadly for these pests bedding.
These representatives also refer to the smallest, and their size ranges from 1 to 3 mm.Female and male dark brown tone, and working individuals differ bright yellow color.These ants are called thieves.Their small size makes them almost invisible, and thus they get along good about the rest of ant species.In doing so they steal their larvae and eggs to feed themselves.They can meet in the middle zone of Russia, as well as the southern part of the European part of the country.
This species is also one of the most common and often settles in human homes.Their color is usually black, but sometimes dark brown.All the insects body covered with small villi.Usually nests are built in the soil, and the top has a bulk mound.They can also build their own homes and in the wood and under the boulders.Sometimes you can find black ant larger size - in this case you stumble upon a representative of another, it is called the Reapers.This species is known for its propensity to huge reserves in the anthill.They can gather up about a kilogram of seeds and insects in order to successfully carry out the winter.Interestingly, unlike other ants their larvae are fed with plant food, but not insects.
But the ant species that are found in Russia, does not end there.For example, many known carpenter who run the branches and collected on a piece of honeydew, and base their colonies in stumps or under the bark, gnawing moves.Also, in the country there are some kinds of "Amazons" that do not give rise to working individuals, and steal the larvae of ants in more peaceful.Was born kids think that Amazon - their parents, and they are beginning to do all the "black" work.
most dangerous species of ants: the name and description of
There are two types of these insects, which give a special fear of man.But they are found not in Russia.It ants "bullet" and "soldiers" (also known as the wandering ants).The first type is found in the woods, outstretched from Paraguay to Nicaragua.The length of its body 2.5 centimeters.He arranges his anthill in the tree.Passing under it, you can get this ant who courageously jumps per person to protect their colony from enemy.These insects are able to scream, and before attacking, he makes the call.It is called the "bullet" for a reason.Its bite is painful and as shrill as a bullet wound.
This is the second dangerous arthropods.Basically he lives in the line of the Amazon, but it is possible to meet the family in Asia and Africa.This large fish, reaching 1.5 cm. They also have large mandibles (approximately 7-8 mm).These ants do not have a permanent anthill.They always wander, arranging a halt only to the short period before the queen lays her eggs.At this time, the soldiers are in search of food.When there are larvae, ants and continue to raise them the way.The most terrible thing - it's what they're on your way destroy all life - insects, small and large animals - all those who did not want to hide or sleep.The unwary victim like a wave covers hundreds of thousands of powerful troops.These ants are completely blind, so all regard as a threat to their colony.That is why they are not afraid of the size of the animals.
These ants are unusually united people.If necessary, they can create their bodies absolutely any shape.For example, they make a bridge to the colony overcame an obstacle or wall from the weather.For this, they firmly cling to each other.
As we have seen, different species of ants have their own internal structure that protects them and allows you to be a colony.But these insects also have enemies who like to eat them.One of the largest ant pests is a bear.He regularly ravages nests, dropping back paws.Ants them "obleplivayut" and bear licks treat.Also, these insects bite like moles and a frog that will not miss running past the toddler.In addition, many known animal that carries the name "anteater".His muzzle is specially adapted to go into the home of insects.In addition, he is not afraid of their bites, since wool is so hard and dense that even small ants can not get through it.The meat of this animal is very smell of these insects and is black.But this is not the only enemy of ants as they hunt for not only mammals, but birds and even fish.