Money - a general equivalent of the value of goods and services, which is part of the financial system in each country.Prior to the adoption of modern species, they have passed a centuries-old evolution.In this review you will learn about what the history of the first money through what steps it took and how to change with the times.
How did the money?
Market relations began to take shape back in VII-VIII century BCWhile primitive people to communicate with one another redundant products and the proportions set depending on the circumstances.With the advent of social division of labor barter gradually became uncomfortable, and our ancestors began to use money as miscellaneous.
In Russia as a means of payment used fur fur-bearing animals, in Ancient Greece - large and small cattle, sheep, horses and bulls.In ancient India, China, on the east coast of Africa and the Philippines - seashells collected on a thread.During the time of Julius Caesar used for this purpose slaves.The inhabitants of the Brazilian currency had feathers flamingos.In Melanesia used pigtails, and Spāre - stone cobbles.In some countries, means of payment is a human skull.
Convert first money
Gradually some currencies were replaced by others, regardless of the will of the people.In the period of wars and revolutions occurred a massive setback.The head of the Belarussian partisan Germans were given a kilo of salt, believing that the product is very expensive.Later on as money used different kinds of metals: copper, tin, lead, and iron.In ancient Greece, the iron bars are considered the best medium of exchange.Now the question arises, how can continue to change money.
History of money tells us that soon became the universal equivalent value of gold and silver metal, taking the form of jewelry.They are at the moment more than conform to the ideals and were aesthetically appealing, so quickly supplanted other forms of money.In the XIII century BCthey were divided into bars of a certain mass.That's when there were first weight units.It turned out to be a convenient weighing gold dust for a long time performs the function of treatment in India, China, Egypt and other countries.
Start of production of coins
With the further development of market relations people minted coins of various shapes, the most practical was the round.Alexander the Great was the first to set up her own image - it tells us the history of money.
money from natural alloy (silver and gold) appeared in the VII century BCLydia in the state, located in Western Asia.There is now Turkey.Coins were the best medium of exchange because of the generated matching the requirements:
- water and fire resistance;
- inability to create a fake;
- ease of creating samples cash denominations;
After several decades in the Greek city of Aegina started to create silver coins differ in shape from the Lydian.Gradually innovation spread throughout the world.
emergence of paper money
There are several versions of how there were paper money.History tells us that in the I century BCmeans of exchange were scraps of leather.In China, we used for this purpose white deer skins and tree bark with the application of special symbols.According to another version, an early form of notes came due to the opening of storage facilities for the exchange of metals on the receipt.
Designed by John Law's first banknotes were issued in France in 1716.That is what prompted the mass production of paper money.At the end of the XVII century they have appeared in the US in the middle of the XVIII century - in Prussia and Austria, and in the end - in France.By the time the First World War, they have spread to all countries.
Development of the Russian monetary system
History of Money in Russia goes into the distant past.The first money came to us from the Arab countries in the XIX century BCand called dirhams.Gold and silver are a means of payment is still in Kievan Rus, in the reign of Prince Vladimir Svyatoslavich (end of XI century, the beginning of X).
word "coin" was included in the Russian language only during the reign of Peter the Great.That's when our ancestors began to actively look for gold, but found only in small quantities in the processing of silver ores.The source discovered in 1745 in the Kolyvan-Voskresensk mines.The history of money in Russia is inseparable from the events of the state.For example, on the occasion of the beginning of the use of gold was created commemorative coin value of 5 rubles with the inscription "Iz Rozs.Kolyv. "
Monetary policy in the USSR
Golden monometallism existed in our country before 1914.After the First World War to cover the state budget deficit to issue credit cards, which can not be exchanged for the precious metal.Because treatment is completely out all kinds of coins remaining in the ownership of the population, but in the Soviet era, they again become a medium of exchange.In the years 1922-1944 released silverware (nominal 10, 15, 50 cents, 1 ruble) and copper (1, 2, 3 and 5 cents).The Soviet government introduced coinage program, and finally in our country will continue to develop the history of money.
money from gold, copper and silver made of metal, which was in short supply.This was discussed further in the years 1910-1911, when the Ministry of Finance and the Mint developed a system replacing expensive materials nickel alloys.Then we began producing the first product of nickel, but because of the military operations and the revolution it was stopped.In this regard, in the second half of the 1920s has been selected bronze and copper-nickel alloy to make new money.The history of money supplemented with a new event: the trial was carried out with a new coinage composition (nominal 10 to 20 cents), which is spread by the end of 1931.It was then determined the types of materials used today for the production of Russian money.
Evolution banknotes in Russia
first paper money appeared in the government of the Russian Empress Catherine II in 1769.They were very similar to bank receipts and used for the payment of salaries to officials.Although bills have watermarks, numbering and text print quality was low, so the counterfeiters quietly forged them.It was necessary to replace all of the outstanding notes on more reliable, which is why after the war against Napoleon once again changed the history of money.Money
new model appeared in 1818.Jewelers began in the Empire style ornaments and engravings.1897 is characterized by stability of the financial system, because the paper money easily exchanged for gold coins.
New technologies in the production of banknotes Russian
From the middle of the XIX century was used metallographic printing engraving, which became the foundation of modern banking printing.At the end of the period under review was the first device designed "Orel print", which produces bright note.This technology is still used because it does not allow fake money.
History of money tells us that the first banknote of 500 rubles with portrait of Peter the Great and the denominations of $ 100 a photo of Catherine II appeared at the beginning of the XX century.After the revolution and during the war there was a disorder of the financial system.During these periods, many people could create a false money in unlimited quantities.So I progressed hyperinflation and deteriorating economy of our country.Vladimir Lenin had not only NEP and monetary reform, but has issued gold coins, then Treasury notes.Later, new banknotes were issued with additional protection mechanisms.
Historical data about the money in Ukraine
Earlier in the Ukrainian lands our ancestors used the Greek coins.Later, there were the money of the Roman Empire, which was used for the accumulation of wealth and the production of jewelry.Thanks to trade relations with foreign merchants, the currency spread in skirts, Carpathian, Transnistria and other regions.Due to the economic and political crisis in the Roman state, arose in the III century, communications were discontinued.In the V-VII century Byzantine entered into circulation and Arabic currency.
During Svyatoslavovich power of Vladimir (918-1015 years) history of money in Ukraine supplemented by a new event: the oldest coins began to make - pieces of silver (weight up to 4.68 g) and zlatnik (weight 4.4 g).They applied to the image of prince on the throne with trizubtsem, is a generic sign Rurik.At the end of XI century the first "hryvnia", made of silver.
In the middle of the XVIII century Ukraine was part of the Russian Empire, in connection with which it has completely changed the monetary system.Modification currency complicate relations residents of the former State with other countries.After the proclamation of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917) it was decided to introduce into circulation paper hryvnia, which were legitimate national monetary unit in 1996.
financial policy of Britain and France
Pound sterling - UK currency used long before the formation of the state.In IX-X century it was produced from 240 pence, which is called "sterling".After 400 years in circulation were gold pounds.Thus, the bimetallic monetary system functioned until the end of the XVIII century.The conflict with France, the First and Second World Wars greatly weakened the financial system, but over time it was restored.Since this country was formed in the history of money.
money are now in circulation in France - the euro.However, it was not always.The first paper money appeared in 1716.During the Revolution (1790), the interim government has issued assignats and mandates.Over time, they are impaired, and in 1800, Napoleon established the Bank, emitting Franks.This proved to be the most stable currency before the First World War.After the restoration of the financial system again Franks were in circulation.In 1997, they ceased to be convertible, France and adopted euro.
Formation of credit money
Credit money appeared simultaneously with the progress in the production of commodities.The recipient is given a certain amount of commitment on the condition of redemption to the original terms.Viewed media type is not created out of circulation, and of the circulation of capital.He is determined not the state foreign exchange reserves, and the amount of loans.But when and how did the loan money?
History of the credit notes began with the first created in Italy in the Middle Ages.Then came the bill.In the XIX-XX century became popular checks.After that were introduced electronic money and plastic cards.
Borrower Loans, if he has the ability to consistently make payments.All information on cash receipts entered in the credit history.If a person does not fulfill its obligations, it will negatively affect its ability to take out a loan in the future.
you are faced with a similar situation?Do not be upset, because there are banks who lend money without checking the credit history.Contact the new commercial financial institutions seeking to win market position by any means.Although their interest rates will be much higher, but the client convicted of late repayment of the loan, has the ability to get a loan.Pay attention to the following organizations: the "Vanguard", "Zapsibcombank", "Tinkoff Credit Systems", "Baltinvestbank."
Currently, the electronic payment system is popular.It provides a financial settlement between the persons who opened her account.The currency is the Russian ruble.All operations take place in a special web interface in real time.That's how the system works, "Yandex".
History of the system is associated with the idea of implementing electronic money.The program has been operational since 24.07.2002.The Russians immediately appreciated its advantages, innovation and popularity began to soar.Gradually it developed, and three years later became available to users new opportunities to work through the interface.In 2007 the company "Yandex" has become the full owner of the program.After three years, she has worked with 3,500 partners and over time spread in different countries of the CIS.In 2012, the increase in the number of electronic purses.
most important achievement to date - the ability to transfer electronic money to a bank account and vice versa.The company is continuously working on improving their service so that users can look forward to an improved system of "Yandex".
history of money is constantly changing due to the circumstances of a particular state.Because some countries continue to interfere with each other, there is a possibility of weakening their financial systems.What changes will occur in the future, it is difficult to imagine.