Economical use of electricity today is based on the use of efficient technologies.In modern conditions, the issue has become very topical.This is mainly due to an increase in capacity of the various enterprises.Next, consider what constitutes efficient use of electricity.
When developing long-term plans all production is oriented primarily to the cost, and the amount of load capacity.Equally important in the strategy of companies has a share capital investment in the modernization of the coming years.For many leaders of the rational use of energy is at the bottom.However, the urgency of this problem makes it pay attention.Modernization of technological capacity and efficient use of energy should be consistent with the strategic plan of any business.Otherwise, it may cause an imbalance in the expenditure of funds that, in turn, is fraught with failure to set goals in terms of output.
use of electricity in agriculture
Today, as the experts, the implementation of enterprise-saving measures are not actively implemented.Increased power efficiency in agriculture - it is a large and complex task.With this question closely related issues to improve the quality and enhance the security of supply.Particular attention is paid to experts recommend to reduce energy losses, as well as the development of measures for its sustainable use.These tasks and solutions must necessarily be included in the strategic plan of any business.
potential danger of increased costs of the enterprise can be overcome through the implementation of a phased plan for energy and technological modernization of production facilities with known parameters of costs and volume of output.Implementation of the program should take into account the characteristics of the goods, the duration of existence of the enterprise.
most important factor for the introduction of advanced software development in favor of optimal savings plan would be replaced for a long time operated power plants.Many of them work in enterprises for over 15 years.Obsolete equipment, especially boiler is characterized by high, unclaimed power today.The problem has long operated installations significantly slows down the development of modern industry.Job obsolete equipment does not require large capital investments.But due to the wear and tear periodically Breakage.This in turn leads to a simple manufacturing process.As a result of increased costs for maintenance, repair and replacement of parts.At the same time it is believed that the postponement of investments for the modernization of such facilities will save the company money.However, as practice shows, in the end costs are not only not reduced, but significantly increase.
introduction of promising projects
plans usually involving the efficient use of electricity, begin to be implemented according to the general program of modernization of all equipment.Formation of the necessary conditions for the implementation of such projects is when the company's management in the planning and costing of products understand the actual level of resource consumption.In particular, the utilization of electric power is considered.In these cases, management tries to find the best quick-and least-cost ways to save.This task performs the first step of the strategic program of the enterprise.The subsequent implementation of the project usually involves work on several fronts, the solution of new and more complex challenges.After reaching the required results of the first stage set new goals.They provide a more flexible cost control and cost management in the use of electricity.After that mapped out and implemented programs to replace obsolete equipment with more modern.This often requires significant financial investment.
Energy efficiency is achieved if the modernization of the main equipment at the plant is carried out together with the analysis of the volume and optimizing the use of resources of the enterprise.An essential element of the program in this case is the calculation of the energy factor in the cost of manufactured products.For each sector, it's different.Thus, the energy component to the steel industry - 40%, engineering - 20%, the production of water - 30% and so on.This percentage may be small.However, in this case, the smart use of electricity in the industry to generate additional volume production.This undersupply resource many times exceed the cost.
instructions on rational use of electricity
The main objective of the company, striving for modernization, reduction of losses in favor of the resource at all levels of the system and within systems.Proper production, transmission and use of electricity to ensure uninterrupted production process is carried out in several directions.The main ones are the:
1. Optimal construction of the supply system in the reconstruction.This approach involves the use of:
- rational stress;
- the total number of transformation;
- the location of the substation;
- the number and power of transformers in substations;
- Reactive power compensation;
- circuit power supply and so on.
2. Reduction of losses in existing systems.It includes:
- voltage regulation;
- management and control of power consumption modes;
- decrease in idle receivers;
- modernization of the existing and the use of more modern, efficient and reliable electrical and process equipment;
- best ways to control the use of modes of ventilation and pumping systems;
- the installation of automatic lighting control throughout the day;
- increasing the quality of electric power;
- the use of the optimal mode of operation of power transformers.
3. Rationing of electricity, the development of evidence-based standards of specific energy consumption per unit of production.To implement this task, the company must operate a system of controls and accounting.
4. the balance sheet, in accordance with which the production, transmission and use of electricity.They develop first on the individual installations and units, moving gradually to the shops, and then generally to the entire enterprise.
5. Organizational and technical measures.Their development is carried out taking into account the specificity of a particular enterprise.
loss of resources
All settings that are included in the supply system, including transformers and lines, different resistances.Consequently, the production and use of electric power is carried out with its losses.The majority of them occur in transformers and lines.Practical calculations are usually carried out taking into account the losses in these elements of the system.Losses in the transformer windings, wires and cables are proportional to the square of the load current flowing through them, which leads to their name - stress.They are also often referred to as variables.This is due to the fact that the load typically varies over time.
With increasing consumption and connection to the network of new plants and increasing losses.On electric power plants are carried out systematic calculations.According to their results, if necessary, carry out activities that contribute to loss reduction.The main ones include:
- Keeping tires at 10 kV and 0.38 kV transformer stations or points of 10 / 0.4 kV distribution transformer substations of 110 ... 35/10 kV voltage level optimal.
- alignment phase loads on networks with a voltage of 0.38 kV.
- Selecting optimal sites opening overhead lines (overhead lines) with a voltage of 10 ... 35 kV, with two-way power.
- Disabling one transformer in the regime of small loads on the two-transformer substations, as well as substations with seasonal loading.
- reduce the use of electricity for personal needs of the SS.
- shorten the maintenance and repair of switchgear, transmission lines and transformers.
Arrangements, as well as methods to improve accounting systems usually do not require significant start-up costs.In this regard, they always advisable to carry out.On the technical measures, the situation is somewhat different.They are related to additional investments.Among the main technical measures should be allocated as follows:
- installation of static capacitors, batteries, equipped with automatic power adjustment.
- replacement of overloaded and underloaded transformers in consumer substations.
- RTP Installation on equipment with adjustable voltage under load.
- Replacement wires on overloaded lines, including the branches from overhead lines to buildings.Translation
- networks on high voltage rating.
reactive power compensation
This event is considered the most effective.Principle of the compensation capacitor in parallel, concluded the following: part of the power which is supplied through, reactive, in particular, not consumed by the heat or mechanical work.It acts only as a measure of energy, wherein the magnetic field source and receiver communicate with each other.But in this case the current that corresponds to the reactive power on the transmission line passing provokes losses.This problem, however, can be solved.In order to ensure the highest possible cost-effectiveness of capacitor banks in networks with a voltage of 0.38 kV must have the power to in times of high reactive load, the rate of which shall not be higher than 0.33, consumers have the power factor was not less than 0,95.
transformers with tap changer
Installing them at 110 ... 35/10 kV provides for the use of electricity in the industry not only with minimal losses, but also respect for the output to consumers normalized deviations in voltage.Due to the discrepancy between the estimated and actual capacities of some transformers included in the network operated can underload.The amplification of the load for these facilities is unlikely, unless one does not dare to illegal use of power by connecting to them.Such transformers it is advisable to replace the less powerful devices.The loss of idling is reduced and windings - increased.With this in mind, we can calculate the ultimate load of the transformer connected to the line at which the substitution of less powerful device is suitable.
Its increase is carried out by the construction of new substations and transmission lines.Also, a set of measures included the replacement of overloaded wires in the development of the network in accordance with special projects.Translation Rural Electric Networks at high nominal voltage is only carrying out the lines with a voltage of 10 kV instead of 6 kV.Proper use of electricity primarily involves improving the functioning of receivers.The necessary technical calculations should be carried out for the entire supply chain.That is, they should not touch and the production and transmission, and the power usage.
Without them, the clever use of power is impossible.Determination bandwidth transformers, cables, and other networks is performed in accordance with the highest rated load.The more current will pass on those elements of the system throughout the year, day or that period, the more they will be involved.Accordingly, the efficiency of power supply will be higher.In practice, the actual schedule is different from the ideal is always the fact that for most of the load is lower than estimated.