Microorganism - is that in the form of life?

In nature there are living organisms whose dimensions are so small that they see with the naked eye it is simply impossible.These researchers observed only under the microscope a strong increase (respectively, were visible only with the invention of these devices).

Who are they?

microorganisms - a collective name.The most typical size of a microbe - less than 0.1 mm.From there its name.Microorganisms - it's just mostly.According to biologists, this cohort also includes non-nuclear (archaea and bacteria) and eukaryotes, as well as some fungi, algae.But do not viruses, which scientists usually distinguish a separate group.


Almost every microorganism - are single-celled structure, cleverly invented and shaped by nature.Typically, microbes are composed of a single cell.But there are exceptions: among them there are multicellular, which represent a set of cells, such as chain.By the way, there are in the world, and macroorganisms that are visible to the naked eye, but consisting of a single cell.


bacteria - microorganisms is very unpretentious.They can survive in conditions that are unsuitable for the existence of other living beings.Bacteria live on land, at sea and in the air and in the bodies of other organisms.For bacteria, it is important to maximize the habitat to meet their requirements: substrate contains nutrients, moisture was sufficient to live, not in direct sunlight (because these microscopic creatures are afraid of exposure to ultraviolet radiation that is used in medicine for disinfection).

in soil

Of course, the greatest number of bacteria found in soil.In the natural humus almost ideal conditions for the life of unicellular organisms.Here in abundance food, moderate humidity, and there is no direct sunlight.If the conditions are suitable, the soil can settle and multiply more than one type of microorganisms.This is mainly saprophytes and saprophagous - the bacteria involved in the circulation of substances in nature, decomposing dead remains of other organisms that provide food plants.The composition of the flora is quite diverse and is represented by many species of microbes.This archaea and spirochetes, and blue-green algae.Here live and fungi, and viruses.It is known that the predominant amount of aerobic sandstones, and loam - anaerobic.The number of bacteria in the soil, breaking all records.One gram of humus (according to the method of coloring microbes invented Vinogradskii) can detect hundreds of millions of creatures invisible to the naked eye.In order to "count" of the body, they are painted with a special compound, and then they become clearly visible under the microscope.A number of rich black earth of these creatures can reach up to two billion per gram of soil.In fact, the bacteria themselves create it, not for a moment ceasing to biological processes and the transformation of substances.

in water and air

microorganism - is to create unpretentious.As we already know, the bacteria can live in any environment, which seems to them more or less attractive.This applies to the expanses of water (especially when there is no active movement of water).There germs satisfied one of the main parameters - the presence of moisture, without which they can not do without.And the food in the lakes and rivers, seas and oceans for many bacteria abound.Thus, when sufficient power, a few grams of water may be in the millions of microorganisms.Among them - and highly dangerous to humans.

  • ons Salmonella infection of the intestine.If it affects a person may experience pain in the stomach, fever, and vomiting.As a combat dangerous microorganisms actively using UV rays and long boiling.
  • Shigella - dysentery pathogen.If it affects the level decreases the body's resistance, immunity decreases.Main symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.Also used for disinfecting heat treatment using prolonged boiling, filtering.
  • Vibrio cholera.Although it is believed that nowadays the disease in general, defeated the bacterium is still found in nature (in water, such as the environment) and represents a threat to human lives.Prevention - boiling, filters ultraviolet.

also many bacteria present in the air, but the environment they are used primarily to move in space, colonization of new territories.From the smallest particles of dust and moisture bacteria as it soars into the air, overcoming sometimes great distances, with the precipitation falls on the ground and there are already formed their colonies.

Blue-green algae

From the diversity of micro-organisms living in the water, it is possible to allocate especially blue-green algae.By the way, the algae were called incorrectly, they are bacteria and cyanobacteria are called now.This microorganism - a direct descendant of stromatolite bacteria that lived on the planet for more than three billion years ago.Cyanobacteria - the only bacteria capable of photosynthesis, the result of which is the formation of oxygen.They include pigments chlorophyll and phycocyanin, giving a blue-green color.These bacteria are widely distributed in nature.Their habitat - water basins, coastal part, raw rocks, bark, soil.They include many varieties.But the main feature and the value of blue-green algae that live everywhere - the release of oxygen by photosynthesis.Thus they are directly, along with other members of the flora involved in the formation of the earth's atmosphere.And in ancient times, according to modern scholars, the ancestors of these microorganisms are literally created gradually the atmosphere of our planet.

opportunistic pathogens

It basically germs, which under certain conditions can cause damage, but in normal conditions "remain neutral."There are quite a few creatures of nature in the human body, they constitute its microbial flora.It enterococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus and fungi, under certain conditions, which may become pathogenic, that is pathogenic.However, in healthy humans with good immunity this usually does not occur.