About allow me the riddle of life,
wrenching ancient riddle ...
Tell me, what is man?
Who are you, man?
pinnacle of evolution?King of nature?Conquerors of Space?The most intelligent being?Atom in the Universe?Creator or Destroyer?Where did the planet Earth?
sciences studying man, many years looking for answers to these and other questions, from ancient times scratching their heads over them, researchers and thinkers.
In various cultures, religions, philosophies there is a huge diversity of views on human nature and its interaction with the physical and the mental world.This set can be considered as the primary formation of the human sciences.
Why not one science?
is the science of human anthropology, but it can not provide the full range of knowledge, covering only a biological, evolutionary and philosophical aspects of the individual.
What is chelovekoznaniya?According to the classification
VG Borzenkova, you can count up to 200 subjects, which are the sciences that study human.
They can be grouped into several blocks:
- science of man as a biological substance (anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, ethology, genetics, paleontology, and others.);
- science of humanity (demography, sociology, ethnology, political science, economics, etc.);
- science of man and his interaction with nature and the cosmos (ecology, biogeochemistry, space medicine, and others.);
- science of man as an individual (pedagogy, ethics, psychology, aesthetics, etc.);
- science, considers man as a subject of activity (ergonomics, engineering psychology, heuristics, etc.).
These disciplines do not exist by themselves: they repeatedly intersect, some methods are widely used in others.For example, the study of the physiology of using certain devices become widely used in the practice of psychology and even criminology (lie detector).There are also different approaches to the classification of what human sciences study.
man as an object of study
Each science of man is looking for patterns in the diversity of its nature and the uniqueness of individual manifestations.
knowledge of man himself as a species Homo sapiens, as a subject of social relations, as the bearer of intellectual and emotional abilities as a unique personality - a difficult task.
She will never be a single solution, despite a lot of the knowledge gained from the time, when the emergence of the human sciences.The more interesting learning process.
social thought in the XX century has made its most influential trend in philosophical anthropology.
this learned man is the central axis around which all the processes of life in the world."Man is the measure of all things" - the ancient principle of the philosophy of Protagoras gives rise to the theory antopotsentrizma.
Christian ideology, one of the foundations of European culture, also claims the man-centrist idea of life on earth.According to her it is believed that the Almighty before created man in the world has prepared the conditions for its existence.
And in the East?
Oriental schools of philosophy, on the contrary, never put people at the center of the universe, considering it a part of Nature, one of its levels.
man, according to these teachings should not resist the perfection of nature, but only to follow it, listening, incorporating into its rhythms.This allows you to keep the mental and physical harmony.
known to all?
the science of the human body with the help of modern technologies evolve with cosmic speed.Studies are striking in their breadth and boldness, and at times frightening lack of an ethical framework.
methods of prolonging life, the finest operation, transplantation, cloning, tissue engineering, stem cells, vaccines, chipping, equipment for diagnosis and treatment - such could not even dream of medieval physicians and anatomists, gibnuvshim in the Inquisition for his thirst for knowledge and desirehelp sick!
It seems that now the person thoroughly studied everything.But for some reason people continue to get sick and die.What else did the science in human life?
geneticists from many countries worked together for several years and almost completely decoded the human genome.This painstaking work goes on, there are new challenges to be addressed current and future researchers.
colossal work is necessary not only as a "pure" knowledge based on it being made and will be made new strides in medicine, immunology, gerontology.
power of thought
What scientific study of man and his abilities?
studies of brain activity show that very few people using its capabilities.The achievements of modern neurophysiology, psychology, pedagogy help develop many latent abilities.
techniques of mental activity more and more embedded in everyday life.What seemed a miracle, a hoax (such as the ability for rapid mental arithmetic), now easily master the preschoolers in special classes.
Other techniques developed in research laboratories, can give a person sverhvozmozhnosti for survival in extreme conditions, such as space flight or combat.
enough to be the conqueror of nature!
end of the last millennium was marked by the unprecedented growth of technological progress.It seemed that a person is subject to all: move mountains, turning the tide of the river, ruthlessly ravage the subsoil and destroy forests, pollute the seas and oceans.
Global cataclysms of recent decades shows that nature does not forgive such an attitude.In order to survive as a species, mankind needs to take care not only about the individual dwellings, but also our common home - the Earth.
One of the most important science is ecology, showing how, destroying nature, man harms himself.But the implementation of the recommendations developed by the scientists, allows you to save and restore the environment.
Man and Society
War, overcrowding of cities, famine, epidemics, natural disasters are suffering huge masses of people.
Social Sciences and institutions concerned with demography, political science, religion, philosophy, economics, clearly can not cope with the information and can not make recommendations for convincing politicians, heads of state, authorities at various levels.
Peace, peace, and prosperity for the majority of people remain a pipe dream.
But in the age of the Internet, many skills are becoming much closer and allow having access to a resource to apply them in their lives, to find like-minded people to help themselves and their loved ones to survive in difficult times and keep a man.
appeal to its history, to the roots, to the knowledge accumulated by previous generations, the return to the origins of morality and ethics, the nature of a chance for the next generation.
many facets and manifestations of each individual, the whole of the human community as a whole makes it extremely difficult task of studying them.
and hundreds of disciplines little to investigate these processes.Science of Man - practically inexhaustible source of mysteries.
It turns out that, despite the advances in technology, humanity could not know himself methods of biochemistry, physiology, mathematical data processing.
remain eternal philosophical questions.We still do not know exactly why the man appeared who was his ancestor, what is the meaning of his life, whether immortality.Who can say?