Qin kingdom in the history of ancient China took a special place.His prince conquered neighbors mired in strife and created a single state.This commander Tsin Van was named Ying Zheng, who became known as the first Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
from Van to Emperor
In the IV century BC.e.problem of the political unification of ancient Chinese kingdoms occupied the minds of progressive thinkers of the era when gradually created the objective conditions for the creation of a single country, the head of which sat to the Chinese emperor.
union dictated by the logic of the political situation in the V-III centuries BC.e.The pursuit of the elimination of independence of neighboring kingdoms and absorption of their territory has led at this time to what is on the site of dozens of large and small hereditary possessions left "seven strong": Chu, Qi, Zhao, Han, Wei, Yan and Qin.The rulers of almost all of them cherished plans for the complete defeat of their rivals.They hoped that the first dynasty of Chinese emperors will build them.
rivals in the struggle for the unification of widely used tactic alliances with distant realms.Known "vertical" union of the kingdoms of Chu and Zhao, directed against the "horizontal alliance" Qin and Qi.The success of the first accompanied Chu, however, had the last word ruler of Qin.
- in 228 BC.e.under the blows fell Zhao Qin troops;
- 225 - the kingdom of Wei;
- 223 was conquered Chu;
- a year later - Yan;
- last surrendered Qi kingdom (221 BC. E.).
As a result, the emperor Ying Zheng became, received a symbolic name of Qin Shi Huang (the name translates as the Chinese emperor "First Emperor of Qin").
most important prerequisite for the destruction of the old political boundaries between the realms has been the development of persistent economic ties.Bright picture of strengthening trade relations between them painted in the III century BC.e.Xunzi, underlines the important role of economic ties to meet the physical needs of people in those products that are not produced in their territories.
Also at this time there was a partial payment spontaneous unification of the coin.The V-III centuries BC.e.the territory Srednekitayskoy plains and adjacent areas gradually add up large economic region, whose boundaries do not coincide with the political boundaries of kingdoms.Commoners, merchants and know understand what is required for the further development of a "single" Chinese emperor who would have erased the boundaries for the sake of domestic political economy.
formation of a single ethnic group
Another fundamental reason for the unification under the rule of Qin Shi Huang was practically formed by the time a common ethnic and cultural space.There is a consolidation of the ancient Chinese, despite their boundaries divided the Middle Kingdom.
Folding common cultural stereotype of population stabilization representations about its community, the development of ethnic consciousness of the ancient Chinese not only paves the way for the future union, but also made it a priority.
Reforms Qin Shi Huang
defeat of the six realms, as well as the subsequent unification of the territories were just shy small step in the formation of the state.More important were unpopular but necessary reforms that initiated the Chinese Emperor Qin.They were directed at the elimination of the consequences of long-term economic and political fragmentation.
decisively breaking the barriers that prevented the establishment of regular contacts between all the districts of the empire, Qin Shi Huang destroyed walls, shared by some warring kingdoms.It was saved only structure along the vast northern border, the completed on the missing areas, and combined into one the Great Wall.
Shi Huang also paid great attention to the construction of the main road linking the then capital of Xianyang to the periphery.One of the most ambitious building measures of this kind has been laying the direct path that connected the vicinity of the center of Xianyang county jiuyuan district (more than 1,400 km long).
This reform was preceded by a fierce struggle opinions about how to organize the management of the newly annexed territories, which form the basis of the principle of the administrative system of the empire.Counsellor Wang Guan insisted that the tradition dates back to the Chou time, marginal land should be given to countries in the hereditary possession of the relatives of the emperor.
against this strongly acted Li Si, the project offered a fundamentally different state system.The Chinese emperor took suggestions Li Si.The territory of China was divided into 36 districts, each of which consisted of the counties (xian).At the head of districts were governors, appointed directly by the Emperor.
the way, is itself on the idea of a newly annexed territories of counties - administrative units under the central government - came at the end of the V century BC.e.The essence of the reform of Qin Shi Huang expressed that he distributed system districts throughout the territory of the empire.The boundaries of the new formations do not coincide with the territory of the former kingdoms of the Warring States period, and did not correspond to the natural geographic boundaries, which could contribute to the isolation of certain areas of the country.
culture and legislation
Other important measures to strengthen the centralized power of the emperor also includes:
- introduction of uniform legislation;
- unification of weights and measures;
- reform of the monetary system;
- introduction of a single written language.
Reforms Qin Shi Huang greatly contributed to strengthening both cultural and economic community of the population of the empire."Land between the four seas were united - I wrote about this Sima Qian - gates open, bans on the use of mountains and lakes mitigated.Therefore, wealthy merchants were able to freely travel all over China, and there was such a place, which would not penetrate the goods for exchange. "
slavery and terror
However, the first emperor was not a paragon of virtue.On the contrary, many historians consider him a tyrant.For example, he actually encouraged the slave trade, not only captured prisoners in military campaigns, but also the residents of China proper.The state itself drawn the masses of the population into slavery for debt or for the crimes committed, and then sell them to slave owners.Prisons also become a slave markets.The country has set a severe terror, one alleged dissatisfaction with the emperor all the surrounding population was destroyed.In spite of this increased crime: were frequent cases of kidnapping for the purpose of selling them into slavery.
persecution of dissidents
Chinese Emperor Shih Huang Ti subjected to brutal repression Confucians, preaching the traditional human values, principles of morality and civic duty, asceticism.Many of them were executed or sent to forced labor, and all their books were burned and banned future.
And after that?
In his work the historian Sima Qian Shiji (in the "Historical notes") mentions that the emperor in 210, died during a trip to China.The death of the emperor suddenly overtaken.Inherit the throne of his younger son came to the throne when the internal social contradictions in the country has deteriorated.Ershihuan at first tried to keep the most important events of his father, strongly emphasizing the continuity of its policies.To this end, they issued a decree that the unification of weights and measures undertaken Qin Shihuanom, remains in force.However, civil unrest, skillfully used by the nobility, led to the fact that the first Chinese Emperor Qin dynasty left the historical arena.The collapse of the empire
unpopular decisions Qin Shi Huang evoked protests in various social strata.It has been made a lot of attempts, and soon after his death began widespread uprising of the masses, destroyed his dynasty.The rebels did not spare even the gigantic tomb of the emperor, which was looted and partially burned.
As a result of the uprising came to power, Liu Bang (206-195 years BC. E.), The founder of a new dynasty emperors - the Han, who had been just a small village headman.He took a number of measures to fight corruption and reduce the influence of the oligarchy.So the merchants and moneylenders, and their relatives were not allowed to hold public office.Merchants have imposed higher taxes, rules were introduced for the rich.In the villages, they restored the local government, the abolition of Qin Shi Huang.
Dynasty Chinese emperors
- Period of Xia (2100-1600 years BC. E.) - Half-mythical dynasty whose existence is described in legends, but real evidence of archaeological finds there.
- Shang (1600-1100 BC. E.) - The first dynasty, whose existence is documented.
- Epoch Zhou (1027-256 BC. E.), Divided into 3 periods: the Western Zhou, Chunqiu and Warring States.
- Qin (221-206 BC. E.) - The first imperial dynasty.
- Han (202 BC. E. - 220 BC. E.) - The dynasty founded by the village elder after a popular uprising.
- Period of Northern and Southern Dynasties (220-589) - several centuries gave way to a whole series of rulers and their dynasties: the Wei, Jin, Qi Zhou - North;Su, Qi, Liang, Chen - South.
- Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-906) - the era heyday of science, culture, construction, military affairs and diplomacy.
- Period "Five Dynasties" (906-960) - a troubled time.
- Song (960-1270) - the restoration of central authority, the weakening of military power.
- Yuan (1271-1368) - the reign of the Mongol conquerors.
- (1368-1644) - founded by a wandering monk who led a revolt against the Mongols.It is characterized by the development of commodity economy.
- Qing (1644-1911) - founded by the Manchus took advantage of the confusion in the country, caused by peasant uprisings and the overthrow of the last emperor of the Ming.
Qin Shi Huang - one of the famous historical figures in ancient Chinese history.His name is associated with the hero of the tale of Hans Christian Andersen "The Nightingale and the Emperor of China."The founder of the Qin Dynasty can be put in a row with the names of Alexander the Great, Napoleon, Lenin - personalities, rocked to the foundations of society, radically change the lives of not only the home state, but many neighbors.