To explain the processes carried out within our planet, scientists took many hundreds of years.Gradually accumulated knowledge grew theoretical and factual material.Today, people can not find an explanation of many natural phenomena, to intervene in their course, modify or send.
What role in all the mechanisms of nature plays a living world, as it was clear at once.However, the Russian philosopher, biogeochemist Vernadsky was able to create a theory that became the basis and remains so to this day.That explains it, what constitutes our entire planet, what relationship there between all the participants.And most importantly, that this theory provides an answer to the question of the role of the living beings on the planet Earth.It is called the theory of the structure of the Earth's biosphere.
Biosphere and its structure
Biosphere scientist proposed to call all that area animate and inanimate, which is in close contact and as a result of joint activity contributes to the formation of certain components of the geochemical nature.
That is the biosphere consists of the following structural parts of the earth:
- lower part of the atmosphere to the ozone layer;
- entire hydrosphere;
- the upper level of the lithosphere - the soil layers located below and to the groundwater inclusive.
That is, all those areas that can be occupied by living organisms.All of them, in turn, represent the total biomass, which is called the living matter of the biosphere.These include representatives of all the kingdoms of nature and people.The properties and functions of living matter are crucial in the characterization of the biosphere as a whole, as it is - its main component.
However, apart from the living, emit several types of substances that make up the shell of the Earth is considered by us.It's like:
- free atoms and elements.
Together, these types of connections and form an environment for biomass, the conditions of life for her.At the same time representatives of the kingdoms of nature themselves have a considerable influence on the formation of many kinds thereof.
In general, all the specified components of the biosphere is the aggregate weight of the folding elements of nature.They come in a close cooperation, carrying out the cycle of energy substances accumulating and reworking many of the compounds.But the main unit - living matter.The functions of living matter are different, but all very important and necessary to maintain the natural state of the planet.
founder of the theory of the biosphere
One who created the concept of "biosphere", developed it, structured and fully revealed, had a remarkable way of thinking, the ability to analyze and compare the facts and the data and draw logical conclusions.This man in his time was the Vernadsky.A great man, naturalist, academician and scientist, founder of many schools.His works have become the basic foundation on which to build all the theories so far.
He is the creator of all biogeochemistry.He is credited with the creation of the mineral resource base of Russia (then the USSR).His disciples were known in the future, scientists in Russia and Ukraine.
Forecasts Vernadsky's dominant position in the people of the organic world and the fact that the biosphere has evolved into the noosphere, have every reason to come true.
living substance.The functions of living matter of the biosphere
As we have already designated higher living matter under consideration shell of the Earth is considered the totality of organisms belonging to all the kingdoms of nature.The special position among the occupied people.The reason was:
- consumer's position, and does not produce;
- development of mind and consciousness.
All other representatives - is a living substance.The functions of living matter were developed and shown Vernadsky.He takes the role of the following organisms:
the most basic functions of living matter of the biosphere - gas, energy and redox.However, the rest are also important, providing the complex processes of interaction between all parts and elements of a living shell of the planet.
consider each of the functions in more detail in order to understand what is meant and what is the essence.
redox function of living matter
manifested in numerous biochemical transformations of substances in every living organism.After all, since the bacteria to large mammals occur every second reaction.As a result, some substances are transformed into other, some break down into its constituent parts.
result of these processes to the biosphere is the formation of biogenic substances.What connections can give an example?
- carbonate rocks (chalk, marble, limestone) - a waste product of shellfish, many other marine and terrestrial creatures.
- deposits silicon rocks - the result of centuries of reactions occurring in shells and shells of animals of the ocean floor.
- Coal and peat - the result of biochemical transformations occurring with plants.
- Oil and others.
Therefore chemical reactions - is the basis for creating many useful to man and nature substances.These are the functions of living matter in the biosphere.
If we talk about the concept of the role of disclosing the substance, it should indicate its close relationship with the previous one.Simply put, a function of the concentration of living matter is the accumulation in the body of certain elements, atoms, compounds.The result is the formation of the very rocks, minerals and minerals mentioned above.
accumulate a some kind of connection is capable of every creature.However, for all the severity of different.For example, all accumulate a carbon.But not every body is able to focus about 20% of iron, as do the iron bacteria.
can cite a few examples that clearly illustrate the function of living matter.
- diatoms, radiolarians - silicon.
- Rust fungi - manganese.
- plant lobelia inflated - chrome.
- plant halophyte - boron.
addition of elements, many of sentient beings capable of forming after the death of the whole complex of substances.
Gas feature substances
This role is one of the main.After gas exchange - zhizneobrazuyuschy process for all beings.If we talk about the biosphere as a whole, the gas function of living matter begins with the activities of the plant, which in the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide capture and release enough oxygen.
Enough for what?For the life of all those beings who are not able to produce it on their own.And this is all the animals, fungi, most bacteria.If you talk about the gas function of animals, it is the consumption of oxygen and the allocation to the environment of carbon dioxide during respiration.
It creates a common cycle, which is the basis of life.Scientists have proved that for many thousands of plants and other living beings were able to completely modernize and adjust the atmosphere of the planet for themselves.This is what happened:
- oxygen concentration was enough to life;
- formed the ozone layer, which protects all life from deadly cosmic and ultraviolet radiation;
- composition of the air became so what is needed for most creatures.
Therefore, the gas function of living matter of the biosphere and is considered one of the most important.
implies a reproduction and dispersal of organisms in different regions.There are certain environmental laws that govern the distribution and transport bases beings.According to them, each individual takes their habitat.There are also competitive relationships that lead to the settlement and development of new territories.
Thus, the functions of living matter in the biosphere - is a reproduction and dispersal, followed by the formation of new features.
This is another important feature that is characteristic of living beings biosphere.It consists in the ability to break down into simpler substances after the death, that is, stop the life cycle.While the organism lives, there are active complex molecules.When death occurs, the process of deconstruction, disintegration into simple components.
This is done by a special group of beings called detritus or decomposers.These include:
- some worms;
- protozoa and others.
main functions of living matter would be incomplete if we did not specify sredoobrazovanie.What does it mean?We have already pointed to the fact that living beings in the process of evolution to create an atmosphere.The same thing they did and with the environment.
loosen and saturating the ground with mineral compounds, organic, they have created for themselves fit for the fertile layer - soil.The same can be said about the water chemistry of the oceans and seas.That is, living beings form their own living environment for themselves.This manifested their environmental functions in the biosphere.Information
role of living matter
This role is specific to living organisms, and higher than it is developed, the greater the role as a carrier of information, and the processor executes.No inanimate object is not able to remember, "write" on the subconscious and play further information of any kind.It can only do living beings.
It's not just about the ability to speak and think.Information function involves the phenomenon of preservation and transmission of specific sets of knowledge and inherited traits.
Energy - is the main source of power, due to which there is a living substance.The functions of living matter manifested primarily in the ability to recycle the energy in different forms biosphere starting and ending with solar heat and electricity.
No one so to accumulate and alter the radiation from the sun can not.The first link here are, of course, plants.They absorb sunlight directly to the entire surface of the green parts of the body.Then convert it into chemical energy available for the animal.The latter translate it into different forms:
- mechanical and others.