The right to vote is the ... Constitution.

click fraud protection

Russian citizens are endowed with a lot of rights with respect to the choice of government and formation of local self-government bodies and even amendments to the Constitution of the country.In terms of the content of laws governing elections in Russia, our country - one of the most democratic in the world.Of course, we are far from Switzerland with its direct democracy, but the state gives the Russians all the resources for a full-fledged national government.

What suffrage

Suffrage - a system of laws that regulate the way the elections should be held in various level authorities, either as such or the right of citizens of the city to participate in the electoral process on the voting rights or the status of the candidate.In both senses of the right to vote may concern, for example, the State Duma elections, the presidential elections in Russia, regional and municipal leaders.

interpretation of the term "right to vote", linked to the participation of citizens in the elections, it means a passive type and active.First - this is when a person becomes a candidate for certain administrative or political office.The second - when he chooses.Sometimes such a classification is called division by objective law, when a person chooses someone and subjective, when he becomes a candidate.A key feature of any law - the existence of restrictions for some persons, and lack thereof for others.So is the case with the right to vote: not all citizens and all persons who have physical access to the election, are endowed with the ability to vote or be candidates.

basis of the electoral law in Russia

Heads of municipalities, the subjects of the Federation, deputies of the councils and the State Duma, the mayors, the president of Russia - they are all selected (if any federal and regional laws in the absence of conflicts with other regulations do not permit otherwise)citizens on the basis of universal, equal and free elections in the secrecy of the ballot.The right to vote in the Russian Federation is based on specific legislation, which is divided into several levels.This federal law (FL) about the franchise, regional and municipal acts.

general elections in Russia, that is, any citizen is entitled to elect and be elected.Some qualifications are, but he has quite a reasonable basis: vote (ie use active or subjective right to vote) can only adult citizens (over 18 years), to be candidates (use of passive or objective right) - Persons 21 years of age.Laws are not allowed to vote and to be elected by the citizens, recognized by the courts as incapable, as well as serving time in prison.The universality of rights in Russia means that an individual by the competent authority to refuse admission to the election may appeal it in court and expect to receive a response no later than two days.

main sources of the electoral law in Russia

Suffrage - a phenomenon based on the law.The key to Russia are as follows.Firstly, it is the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the main law of the country.Secondly, it is the Federal Law "On referendum," the will of the national regulatory frameworks on issues related to the status of the entire country.Third, it is the federal laws that govern elections to the authorities and explain the key provisions of the electoral rights of Russian citizens.Among those of the federal law "On elections of the President," "On ensuring the constitutional rights of citizens of the Russian Federation to elect and be elected to bodies of local self-government."Fourth, to the sources of the electoral law in Russia are presidential decrees, acts of local executive officers, heads of regional authorities and municipalities.Sometimes the realization of the right to vote becomes the prerogative of the State Duma and the Central Election Commission, which, if appropriate, make relevant decisions.

Voting rights of Russians

guarantees of electoral rights of citizens in modern states acquire the character of a system controlled by a number of specific laws.They determine the order in accordance with which there is a range of officials or political organizations to represent the interests of citizens in the various authorities.There is a separate law regulating the democratic process - Federal Law "On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the right to participate in a referendum of citizens of the Russian Federation."

Among the most important, significant and virtually guarantees citizens the right lawyers say the following.Firstly, it is political guarantees.They are associated with a variety of ideologies, equality of people united by common interests before the law, freedom of campaigning, the involvement of independent observers.Secondly, this material guarantees of electoral rights: the cost of holding elections at various levels are assigned to the budget of the country, region or municipality.Third, it is proper legal safeguards to ensure the legitimacy of the elections.Citizens under these warranties may appeal the actions of various officials involved in the organization of voting and counting of results.

Types of electoral systems in the Russian

Suffrage - a kind of mechanism.The stability of his work involves adherence to certain standards.Among those, for example, the format of the polling system.In Russia, two of them - majority and proportional.In the first elections are held in single-member or multi-member constituencies.The voting results are calculated on the basis of the majority of votes for a candidate or candidates.It can be applied generally an absolute majority, when the winning candidates have to win more than 50% of the vote, or relative when the winner is the one who receives at least one vote more than any of its competitors.

Proportional size - is when voters vote for lists of candidates formed political associations (parties and blocs).The majority system is characteristic of the Russian presidential election, of regional governors and mayors.Proportional format used in the elections to the Duma and local representative bodies.However, in some regions there are precedents for the election of deputies to the local authorities and by the majority system.

specific formats for Election Systems established by the laws of different levels.When it comes to the presidential elections, or State Duma, the rules are applied at the federal level.In turn, at the elections held in the subjects of the Russian Federation, municipalities to the fore local rules of law, but only if they do not contradict federal laws and the Constitution.Any laws concerning the regulation of electoral procedures must comply with the Federal Law "On Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights", which was mentioned above.

Who and how to change the constitution

As mentioned above, the Constitution of the Russian Federation - is the main law of the country.All lower level required to conform to it.The Constitution may be revised in part (only in 1, 2, and 9 chapters), it may be amended (3-8 chapters).

Who has the authority to make proposals for amendments to the text of the Constitution or the revision of some of its parts?This right has a lot of government: the President, the State Duma, the Federation Council, the Russian government and the representative bodies of the regions.Specific parts of the course of the revision of the Constitution would depend on what kind of authority has taken the initiative.Fact: direct involvement in changing the country's constitution can take the citizens themselves.

For example, if more than 60% of the votes of members of the Federation Council and State Duma deputies called for the revision of the Constitution, then immediately convened a Constitutional Assembly.Participants can take one of two decisions: leave the main law of the country without any changes to develop a new project.And here that the process can connect the citizens of Russia.If two thirds of the Constitutional Assembly will not be able to decide on a solution, it is proposed to make the Russians.The adoption of the new draft Constitution need to "for" votes more than half of the citizens, and the turnout exceeded 50%.The right to vote in Russia - it is also an opportunity to residents of the country to make or change the basic law.

Another example - the draft law on making amendments to the Constitution in chapter 3 to 8 by the State Duma.This happens in three readings, which is very similar to the procedure for the adoption of federal laws.To approve the amendment should be not less than two-thirds of the deputies.After going through three readings of the bill goes to the discussion in the Council of the Federation and there to vote "for" should be three-quarters of the members.If this occurs, the law is published in the official publications, and it can familiarize citizens.At the same time it is sent to the representative bodies of the Federation.To become a full-fledged law bill, it is necessary to two-thirds of the regional authorities approved it.If this happens, the act is sent to the signing of the Russian president.

Duma elections

Russian system of suffrage involves several different types of elections.One them - the election of deputies of the lower house of the Russian Parliament (Duma).This procedure is governed by the Federal Law "On election of deputies."According to the Act, the State Duma are elected by citizens in the secrecy of the ballot.The lower house of Parliament is always elected 450 deputies.The selection is made at the federal level in proportion to the votes cast for the lists of candidates from political parties.That is not to vote for a particular person, but only for a political union in which it is registered.Having a certain percentage of votes the party receives is proportional to the number of 450 seats in the Duma.

elect deputies are Russian citizens who are 18 years of age.Also adult Russians can participate in the formation of the party lists of candidates, campaigning, observe how the elections are going, how the electoral commissions (including overseeing the counting of results).Citizens who turned 21, can do to try themselves as candidates in the elections to the State Duma.

Elections of deputies of the lower chamber of Parliament appointed by the president.The head of state has to give good, not later than 90 days before the date of the vote (the first Sunday of the month, when the term of office expired on the current convocation of the State Duma).

important if not key role in the election of deputies of the State Duma election commissions play.They implement the voting in local areas - in towns and villages.In the election to the State Duma, any party can attract their representatives election commissions.Three of them: Commissioners voting, a person authorized to give an advisory vote, the observer.Each of them is endowed with a certain range of functions.Rights-member election commission fixed by law.Let's see what can be, for example, the observer.Firstly, it monitors the correctness of the counting of votes.Second, it is right to consider ballots for their integrity, correct marks "for" or "against".He can watch the correctness of the minutes, reflecting the results of the vote, to get acquainted with the other documents related to the election.

What is direct democracy

There is such a thing - direct suffrage.It is a procedure that does not accept the laws of the representative body (the Council or the Duma), and the residents themselves of the country or political entity.The methods may be different here: congresses, forums, etc.Historically, direct democracy preceded representative.This form of government practiced in the days of ancient civilizations, in the early Middle Ages (including Russia in the form of National Chamber).

now direct democracy occur except at the level of small groups (for example, when choosing a mayor in a university group).There are elements of direct popular government, and in some municipalities, such as in the Israeli kibbutzim, in the Swiss cantons (plus in the ongoing national referenda in Switzerland).

example of direct democracy in Switzerland

Consider the Swiss model of direct democracy.Here is an example where the institutions of direct democracy guaranteed the right to vote - it is a tool to influence national policy.Recently, the country held a referendum where it was a question of the tightening of immigration policy.For something to take more stringent laws, voted 78.8% Swiss.As a result, in the autumn of 2015 potential migrants will be more difficult to be naturalized in this European country: will, for example, set up special camps to verify the identity of refugees.This precedent, according to some analysts, the rest of the world has shown how effective and close to the people, his moods direct democracy, as well as just how wide can be the electoral rights of citizens.

history of Swiss democracy, according to most historians, takes the countdown from the XVI century.Then came self-government under the name "landsgemaynde" to control the lives of local communities.The right to vote had only men have the right to carry a weapon.The next step is the appearance of Swiss direct democracy - the first referendum held in May 1802.Then the popular vote was adopted Constitution Helvetic Republic.

Now any citizen of Switzerland may, firstly, to vote, and secondly - to initiate a national discussion of a bill amending the current acts, codes or even the Constitution.However, you will need to collect a considerable number of signatures for the initiative has been registered.Their exact number depends on the type of referendum.In Switzerland, two of them - optional (it requires 50,000 signatures) and binding (100 000 signatures).

This difference is easily explained: optional referendum - this is usually the case against adopted by parliament of the law, that is to trigger an optional referendum should be certain conditions, and a binding referendum - is the process of "from scratch", for which compliance with the special conditions required.

Russian presidential election

Russia, according to many experts - a presidential republic.That is the position of the head of state is not nominal (as in Germany), President of de jure and de facto concentrates in his hands enormous powers, and because the Russian suffrage gives the procedure for selecting the head of state a number of special features that distinguish this processby election, for example, the State Duma deputies.

Election Law stipulates that the president of Russia can not become a citizen under the age of 35 years (in the case of elections to the State Duma voting age - 21).This is due to the special role and great responsibility of an elected head of state.It is also a candidate for the post of president of Russia should be at least ten years to live in the country.Regarding this qualification has two interpretations.Some lawyers believe that ten years of residence can be obtained by summing up the different periods of stay in Russia.Others believe that we must live continuously.

If the elections to the State Duma, the same party may take at least all the 450 seats as many times in a row, the president of Russia can be only two times in a row.It is believed that a limited number of presidential re-election may prevent authoritarianism.Changing personalities as president, as some political scientists - a condition of peaceful, lawful behavior of the opposition, which is always a chance to put their candidate in the elections and win.Otherwise, the opposition could organize a coup.Russia's Constitution allows the same person to hold the presidency three times, and four more times, but not twice in a row.

election of the Russian president appointed by the Federation Council, not later than 120 days before the date of the vote.Just as in the case of the election of deputies of the State Duma, the vote takes place the first Sunday of the month in which the deadline powers of the president.By the way, the Federation Council can not call an election, but they will be held in the second or third Sunday of the month in which the citizens elect the president in the last time.