To date, the Russian Federation has the world's most powerful space industry.Russia is the undisputed leader in the field of manned space flight and also has parity with the United States in matters of space navigation.Some gaps in our country there are only distant studies of interplanetary space, as well as in the development of remote sensing of the Earth.
space rocket was first conceived by Russian scientists Tsiolkovsky and Meshchersky.They in 1897-1903 he created a theory of its flight.Much later, this trend began to develop foreign scientists.It was the Germans von Braun and Oberth and the American Goddard.In peacetime, the interwar period issues of jet propulsion, and for this purpose the creation of solid and liquid engines engaged in only three countries in the world.They were Russia, the US and Germany.
By the 40th century, 20 years in our country can be proud of the success achieved in capacity solid-propellant engines.This allowed during the Second World War, to use such a dangerous weapon, as "Katyusha".With regard to the creation of large rocket motors equipped with liquid, there has been a leader of Germany.It is in this country took arms "V-2".This is the first ballistic missiles with short range.During World War II, "V2" was used for the bombing of England.
After the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany core team of Werner von Braun under his direct supervision launched its activities in the United States.At the same time, they took with them from the defeated countries were previously developed drawings and calculations on the basis of which was to be built space rocket.Only a tiny part of a team of German engineers and scientists continued their work in the Soviet Union until the mid 50-ies of the 20th century.At their disposal are parts of the process equipment and missiles without any calculations and drawings.
In the future, both in the US and the USSR were reproduced missiles "V-2" (we have it R-1), which determined the development of the rocket, designed to increase the range.
this great Russian scientist and an outstanding self-taught inventor considered the father of astronautics.They are still in 1883, it was written by a historical manuscript of "free space".In this work Tsiolkovsky first time suggested that the movement of the planets may have a special need for this aircraft, which is called "space rocket".The theory itself jet unit has been proved to them in 1903. It is contained in a work entitled "Investigation of outer space."Here, the author gives evidence that the space probe is the apparatus that can be used to leave the earth's atmosphere.This theory was a real revolution in science.After the flight to Mars, the Moon and other planets mankind has dreamed for a long time.However, scholars have been unable to determine how to be arranged in the aircraft, which moves in a completely empty space without support, capable to give it acceleration.This problem was solved by Tsiolkovsky who proposed to use for this purpose a jet engine.Only through such a mechanism could conquer space.
Space missiles Russia, the US and other countries far out into Earth orbit using a rocket engine, offered in due time Tsiolkovsky.In these systems the conversion of chemical energy into kinetic energy, which has ejected from the jet nozzle.Particular process occurs in the combustion chambers of such engines.They are the reaction of fuel and oxidant generates heat.The products of combustion are expanded, heated, accelerated in the nozzle and are ejected with great speed.The rocket with the moves by the law of conservation of momentum.She gets acceleration, which is directed in the opposite direction.
Today there are projects such engines as space elevators, solar sails, and so on.. However, in practice, they do not apply, as is still under development.
rocket Tsiolkovsky proposed by scientists, is a metal chamber elongated shape.Outwardly, she looked like a balloon or a blimp.Front, head space rocket intended for passengers.Here it was installed control devices and store carbon dioxide absorbers and oxygen supplies.The passenger compartment lighting provided.In the second, the main part of the rocket Tsiolkovsky arranged combustibles.With their mixing occurs explosive mass education.She lights it in a designated location in the heart of missiles and ejected from the tube expanding with great speed in the form of hot gases.
For a long time the name of Tsiolkovsky was not well-known, not only abroad but also in Russia.Many considered him a dreamer, an idealist and a crank-dreamer.The true evaluation of the works of this great scientist received only with the advent of Soviet power.
Create missile system in the USSR
significant steps in the development of interplanetary space were made after the end of World War II.It was a time when the United States, as the only nuclear power, began to put on our country political pressure.The initial task that was put before our scientists, was Russia's military buildup.To rebuff under waged in the years of the cold war it was necessary to build an atomic and then hydrogen bomb.The second, equally difficult task was to set up the delivery of weapons to the target.To do this and to require military rockets.In order to establish this technology as early as 1946 the government was appointed chief designer of gyroscopic instruments, jet engines, control systems and so on. D. Responsible for linking into a whole all systems become SPKorolev.
Already in 1948 the first one developed in the USSR ballistic missile was successfully tested.Similar flights to the United States were carried out a few years later.
Besides military build-Soviet government set itself the task of space exploration.Work in this direction were made by many scientists and designers.Even before the rocket rose into the air intercontinental range, the developers of such technology, it became clear that by reducing the payload of the aircraft could achieve a speed exceeding space.This fact suggests the possibility of withdrawal on the Earth's orbit an artificial satellite.This epoch-making event took place 04.10.1957 It was the beginning of a new milestone in space exploration.
Create Soviet missiles
work on the development of near-Earth space airless require enormous effort on the part of numerous teams of designers, researchers and workers.The creators of the space rockets were to develop a program of withdrawal of the aircraft into orbit, debug the terrestrial service, and so on. D.
The objective was a difficult task.It was necessary to increase the mass of the rocket and make it possible to achieve escape velocity.That is why in 1958-1959, in our country has been developed a three-stage version of the jet engine.Since its invention, it became possible to make the first space rocket, which could climb to orbit man.Three-stage engines and opened the possibility of flying to the moon.
Further boosters increasingly improved.Thus, in 1961, it has four-established model of a jet engine.With him, the missile could reach not only the moon but also to get to Mars or Venus.
first manned flight
Start space rocket with a man on board was first held, the 04/12/1961 from the ground pulled the ship "Vostok", piloted by Yuri Gagarin.This event was a milestone for mankind.In April 1961, space exploration received its new development.Go to manned flights required by designers to create such aircraft, which would come back to Earth safely overcoming the atmosphere.In addition, the space rocket was supposed to be a system for life support, including the regeneration of the air, food and more.All these objectives were successfully achieved.
further space exploration
missiles "East" for a long time contributed to retain the leading role of the USSR in the field of exploration of near vacuum.Their use continues to this day.Until 1964 aircraft "East" surpassed all the existing analogues for their capacity.
little later in our country and in the United States were created more powerful vehicles.The name space rockets of the type constructed in our country - "Proton-M".American-like device - "Delta-IV».In Europe, it was designed rocket "Ariane 5", which belongs to the heavy type.All of these aircraft enable output 21-25 tons of cargo to a height of 200 km, which is low-Earth orbit.
New developments within the project manned flight to the moon were created RN belonging to the super-heavy class.This space such missiles the US as "Saturn-5 'and H-1 Soviet.Later, in the Soviet Union it was created super-heavy rocket "Energia", which is currently not used.Powerful American rocket was the "Space Shuttle".This allowed the rocket put into orbit spacecraft weighing 100 tons.
Manufacturers of aircraft
Space rockets were designed and created in OKB-1 (Special Design Bureau), TSKBEM (Central Design Bureau for Machine Building), as well as NGOs (scientific production association) "Energy".It is here that saw the light of Russian ballistic missiles of all types.From left and eleven strategic complexes that has adopted our army.Through the efforts of the employees of these companies has been established, and the R-7 - the first space rocket, which is considered the most reliable in the world at present.From the middle of the last century, these industries were initiated and work in all areas related to space development.Since 1994, the company received a new name, becoming OAO RSC "Energia".
Today manufacturer of space rockets
RSC "Energia".SPThe Queen is a strategic enterprise of Russia.It plays a leading role in the design and manufacture of manned space systems.Much attention is paid to the establishment of new technologies.There developed specialized automatic space systems as well as pH for launching aircraft.In addition, RSC "Energy" is actively introducing high technologies for the production of products not related to the development of a vacuum.
As part of that enterprise, in addition to head of design bureau are:
- JSC "Experimental Engineering Plant."
- JSC "PO" Cosmos ".
- JSC "Volga KB."
- branch of "Baikonur".
most promising software companies are:
- issues of further space exploration and the establishment of a manned space transportation system of the latest generation;
- the development of manned aircraft, which are able to master the interplanetary space;
- design and creation of energy and telecommunications space systems using special small-sized reflectors and antennas.