One of the main rules of rational creation of working conditions in the enterprises is the lighting.Improper or insufficient number of factors can cause fatigue of workers, which leads to a drop in performance.Subsections industrial lighting can be for a few different categories.In the first place it depends on the distribution of the radiation source and is divided into:
This industrial lighting provided by natural light source - the sun's rays, and the rest scattered in the atmosphere of luminous flux.It is the most advantageous embodiment because the human eye is more suited to such a light source.As for industrial space, natural light in them in the following ways:
- top - feed streams produced by skylights in the ceiling;
- side - the light penetrates into the room from the window openings;
- mixed - it combines the two previous options.
lighting industrial premises only natural look is not able to create a level of illumination that is necessary, because it has a number of drawbacks.
- Changing weather conditions - increased cloudiness and precipitation, as well as the dark significantly complicate working conditions.
- determine the location of openings due to the building structure can not provide uniform light penetration.
- direct sunlight can be caused by glare, which is unacceptable safety.
lack of natural light sources are replenished with the help of artificial lighting, which can be used in the two systems:
- general, whose principal objective is to fully illuminate the entire room;
- combined - general and local lighting integrated in this system.The second carries the feature focus of the light flux in the workplace or specific mechanisms and pieces of equipment.
Important! Lighting of industrial buildings only due to the artificial kind is unacceptable.
Candlelight intended divided into:
- workers.It is necessary to ensure a continuous process.It is used when there is a lack of natural light, or lack thereof.
- emergency.The presence of this kind shall be provided in the event of a sudden stop mechanisms caused by:
- duration of the infringement process technology;
- emergency (explosion, fire, mass poisoning);
- occurrence of risk of accidents in public places;
- work stoppage critical infrastructure production - pumping stations, power stations, traffic control, ventilation, fire rescue stations and many others, the existence of which depends on the characteristics of production.
also a lighting shall be provided in the event of evacuation, it should be placed:
- shops in the territory in which the number of workers more than 100 people;
- stairways and passages which are provided for evacuation;
- in production areas where interruption of work lights can expose workers to injuries;
- in dangerous places for the passage of people.
Emergency lighting must have an individual connection to the power supply, independent of the worker.This is necessary in order to ensure the timely inclusion of the sudden disconnecting the operating voltage.
artificial light sources
As a light source used such devices:
- Well-known incandescent lamps, they are sources of thermal radiation.These lamps are of limited use in the production, as distort color perception.But still find their application due to the ease in connecting and working with the various influences of the environment.
- luminescent lamps - the glow is due to an electrical discharge that occurs in gases or vapors.These lamps are divided into several types depending on the pressure and used the internal environment.The use of gas discharge lamps is determined by several parameters:
- economy that caused a low power consumption;
- lack of heat radiation from the light source;
- uniform light distribution on all the illuminated area;
- high luminous efficacy;
- close to the natural light spectrum.
industrial lighting, which uses these lamps is, of course, disadvantages:
- optimum operating temperature from 15ºC to 25ºC;
- limited use in hazardous areas;
- noise chokes.
LED lamps.Their use is becoming increasingly important in recent years.Industrial LED lighting has a number of advantages over fluorescent and incandescent bulbs:
- economical energy consumption;
- resistance to voltage drops;
- high degree of protection against moisture and dust;
- opportunity uses to explosion hazard;
- to minimize ripple;
- natural color rendition;
- long life cancels permanent replacement lamps;
Industrial Lighting artificial type can be used only in conjunction with a local on the premises.Using it as a single option is only possible if it is provided by the rules of the process.This applies mostly to laboratory space, which is important to observe a special microclimate.
This option is the most reasonable solution and is used for most industrial facilities.Combination combines natural and artificial light industrial buildings.In order to ensure comfortable working conditions in the design should take into account the basic parameters of the lighting in the room:
- Maintaining within normal limits glare.This high brightness surface, which leads to the dysfunction of view.
- uniformity of brightness distribution.Failure to comply with this parameter causes fatigue and reduces efficiency.It is characterized by non-uniformity coefficient, which is determined by the ratio of the luminance maximum value to the minimum value.
- Limitation falling shadows, the presence of which leads to sudden changes in brightness.The greatest danger to the human eye are moving shadows.
- maximum luminous flux to prevent vibrations.Calling them can be voltage drops in the network or the flicker of gas discharge lamps.
Industrial lightning outside
All of these species belong to the interior.But on the premises is very important and outdoor lighting.It provides good security and safety of the surrounding areas of industrial buildings.For outdoor lighting, you can use any light source.But given that they need to work productively all the dark, rises above all a question of economy and good light output.Of course, a priority option is LED lighting.
There are specific recommendations for use of outdoor lighting type:
- Industrial lightning street should have a separate system wiring.
- Coefficient of uneven lighting industrial areas road and rail entrances must not exceed 15.
- To limit glare should be provided for the height of the lamp in accordance with the regulations.