Like other military equipment, the world's submarines historically divided by year of release for generations.From the "Nautilus" and "Leninsky Komsomol" to the modern multi-purpose missile-carrying low-noise "Sea Wolf" and "Boreas" not only passed six decades, during which time changed for four submarines-generation nuclear-powered ships.On the arms of the Russian fleet is already "Severodvinsk" (K-560) Project 885 "Ash", a submarine with a nuclear power plant of the fourth generation.It laid three similar ships ("Kazan", "Novosibirsk" and "Krasnoyarsk"), on the order of three.By the end of the decade, most likely, will not be less than ten.The stocks went down a new nuclear submarine, photos, depicting the event, the media have published all over the world, sometimes with helpful comments, but more as an illustration of the growing Russian military activity.Perhaps this view is justified, and our country, armed, showing aggressive intentions?You have to compare, for example, quantities of military budgets and the composition of the fleets.
Goals and Objectives
current situation in the world, despite the lack of ideological confrontation escalated to the "hot" level, comparable to the pre-war period, the expectation of the Cuban missile crisis.An independent policy pursued by the leadership of Russia's geopolitical interests in the defense of the country, causing the irritation of "Western friends."For example, some states, torn by internal conflicts, exacerbates completely destroyed the economy, you can judge the intentions and desires of the external forces to take any measures, including direct military intervention in order to achieve their goals.Preliminary phase of aggressive actions in favor diplomatic pressure, accompanied by threats of force.The US defense budget is huge, he confidently approaching astronomical and unprecedented level of 700 billion. Dollars.The Russian Federation can not be on defense spending so much money, so it costs less than the amount in response to asymmetric threats.Submarines of the "Ash" - an example of a strategic approach, according to which no financial surge achieved quite acceptable parity.Although the claim that they are cheap, too, can not.
history of the fourth generation
general appearance of nuclear submarines of the fourth generation, in general, formed in the late seventies.While the confrontation between the two superpowers are not masked by talking about the benefits of democracy and wore quite frank irreconcilable conflict between two political and economic systems.The main US naval weapons were aircraft carriers, personified all the military power of the West.The second "sword" that threatened the Soviet Union, considered the Premier League.In connection with these two restless circumstances nuclear submarine last generation in repelling aggression it is theoretically possible to fulfill two main objectives: the fight against heavy aircraft carriers, who went out with an escort and destroy enemy submarines.You can add another important function: the application of the guaranteed retaliation.The Soviet Union has committed itself to the first nuclear weapons are not used.The plan was the creation of another type of the submarine, universal, also known as multi-purpose.It is to such and are submarines of Project 885 "Ash", embodied in the metal after the collapse of the USSR, in the XXI century.The political system in the country has changed.Probable enemy remains the same.
unification and universalization of
Bureau "Malachite" in the USSR since the fifties has been developing new submarine nuclear-powered.The new submarine was developed right here, in Leningrad.Technique of the fourth generation is not only the year of production engineering documentation.Innovative ideas applied a lot, and they are conceptual in nature and relate to specific technical features.The Soviet Navy exploited many projects submarines, making them difficult to service, training of crews, repair, and production itself.There was quite logically reasonable idea to unify the design of the submarine so that it could perform a number of tasks, previously available only to specialized ships or at least on the basis of a single sample to obtain the ability to create units for various purposes.Such a nuclear submarine and cheaper (the people's money and try to save the Soviet Union), and crew training is simplified.
half shell - it's like?
Conventional submarines, nuclear and diesel, based on the classic layout consists of a durable housing that contains everything needed to perform combat missions, and light shell, covering the ballast tanks.There are, of course, multihull underwater cruiser ("Shark", for example), but they are very large and expensive, so their use is highly specialized, and the problem was just in the creation of a multi-purpose ship.According to the original scheme to build the project "Ash".The submarine has a half shell.What does it mean?Of course, you can not cut back on rugged, there are all the weapons, tools and machines, control devices, nuclear reactor, and many other things, including the crew.But with the outer shell of engineers from CB "Malachite" we arrived safely.They covered only the nose of the ship, excluding add-on missile silos.Front main ballast tanks located in intercase space, ten are distributed as follows: 5 CCH located in the seventh compartment and 4 (plus the additional intended for a quick dip) in the fifth missile.Containers filled with air or water, occupy the annular space, edging equipment and weapons.But especially shipbuilders were not limited to the layout.
In the sixth compartment is the "heart" of the ship, a nuclear reactor.It is here that releases massive amounts of heat, warming up steam, rotating turbines.Submarines of the "Ash" equipped with special power plant, built on an integrated-circuit-piece.This ensures that all heat occurring in the first circuit (direct contact with the fuel elements) are located, and the long lines will not need to keep.Installing compact, its capacity is two hundred megawatts, and it is less than "fonit" (it is a question of secrecy).The reactor is very reliable, this demand is dictated by the difficult access to its zones, guaranteed period of operation time is set for at least thirty years.
class submarines "Ash" are rugged, divided into compartments that they are no different from all others.Their nine, here's their list:
1st - CCU.In addition to the central command post here posted rescue chamber in which, if necessary, be able to leave the ship crew sonar position and access to the cabin.Torpedo tubes, in contrast to previous projects are behind this cover, replaced the main "eyes" and "ears" of the ship - the antenna receiving even the weakest signals and gives detailed information about your surroundings.Submarine Project 885 "Ash" - the most "sighted" ships of its class.
2nd - torpedo, hence charged TA themselves underwater missiles, as well as accessories and external electric sliding devices.
3rd, Four-, full of devices and equipment of general ship destination (generators, coolers, ballast pumps, etc.)
4th - home, here are the Kubrick and crew cabins, mess, mess, medical center and other facilitiesto ensure normal conditions during long distant trips.
5th compartment called the rocket.In addition to the formidable weapon, as stated above, there are also the ballast tanks.
6th - reactor, in addition to the power plant, equipped with an auxiliary tank to compensate for the trigger pulse.
7th compartment called the turbine.This is the place where the hot steam gives its energy to the propeller shaft.Yet here are 5 BTF.
In the 8th concentrated mechanical equipment, and there is a hatch rescue purposes.
9th compartment called the tiller.Translated from the language of the sea means that there is managed horizontal and vertical rudders by means of hydraulic actuators.
nuclear submarine "Ash" was designed so that its discovery was problematic.Typically, the presence of a submarine in any area of the world ocean "calculated" on several grounds: the noise of screws and tools, radiological trail, heat dissipation, and visually through the transparent layers of water.Unmasks the ship and the magnetic field produced by the metal.In order to reduce the visibility and the risk of landmine detonator responsive to changes in static fields, ships in ports and on the roads subjected to demagnetization procedure.Housing Project 885 submarine is made of a special steel alloy with similar properties to the paramagnetic.Noise is minimized by 15 dB to reduce them only through a revolutionary grid pattern layout.Special sound-absorbing coating also made the boat "quiet."Use other solutions to reduce the visibility.The propeller alone, it is made by special technology, which provides low-noise running.
Now the main thing, on what types of weapons can in case of need apply "Ash".The submarine is on board eight launchers shaft type for "Onyx".Since the ship is versatile, they can be replaced at 3M54 ("Turquoise") or "Calibre" 3M14.Each PU can release 4 cruise missiles.Manages complex weapons system 3P-14P.The missiles can hit ground and surface targets, passing through flat trajectory, making them difficult to detect and missile activities.Their design incorporates the principle of "wolf pack", according to which between the flying projectiles at the time of entering the combat course set interface connection.The rocket was higher than the other, taking a leadership role in coordinating activities of the group.If it means the defeat of the enemy missile guiding function is automatically transferred to another unit.Fighting with a volley of cruise missiles is almost impossible.For this "ash" was gloomy nickname "killer of aircraft carriers."
ten torpedo tubes, all of which are on the sides of the second compartment just behind the central command post.Ammunition - 30 "Physics 1" (533).
If necessary, the ship can lay mines, implement hydroacoustic opposition (this is the "Barriers" REPS-324) and to carry out other activities that complicate the operational activity of hostile navy.
Not everything that is on the ship, you can get information from open sources.Experts are still judged by their appearance that is the submarine.Photos published in the media, allow us to conclude on the size, they are really considerable length of 140 meters.Displacement submerged - almost 14 thousand. Tonnes.Also available speed settings, which boasts the submarine.Specifications, as usual, vary depending on the extent of absorption housing, underwater ship moves faster (31 knots), and the ascent is developing 16 knots.The crew consists of 32 officers and 90 sailors and petty officers.All of them are in danger and the impossibility of the struggle for survival may leave the boat in a detachable escape pod, located in the bow.One is struck by the abundance of retractable antenna systems, towering above the deckhouse.They provide reliable communication with the command and other ships.Available information on the availability of special equipment on the boat, creating acoustic information channel be protected from interception.To learn how it works, there is no detailed information.
declared autonomy is one hundred days, but really, is likely to be and more.
technology and cost
The fact that the ships belong to the same project, does not mean they are completely identical.Each new unit has certain advantages over the previous due to improvements in technology and the use of more modern types of equipment and weapons.The ships are not built as fast as some other types of machinery, particularly as complex as nuclear submarines of the "Ash".The submarine "Severodvinsk", adopted by the Navy last year cost the treasury 47 billion rubles.The same amount will cost and "Kazan", but we already know that this ship lines improved, modernized equipment, and even lower noise.Besides the production of all components and accessories submarine is now transferred to the territory of the Russian Federation, which reduces the risk of leakage of confidential information about their device and increases independence from foreign suppliers.There is reason to assume that the value of each subsequent unit will decline as the improvement of the technological cycle.It always happens, but this phenomenon has another side.At the moment of achieving the greatest perfection, any technique has become obsolete, and new developments are ready for implementation, and the circle is repeated endlessly.Whatever the best project 885 "Yasen", Russian CB probably already have other ideas.After a few years they will certainly create a new submarine, the characteristics of which will be even better.