a person has a need that is always and under all conditions need to satisfy.Whoever you are, whatever social position not occupied, without a good, good-quality food you can not do.No wonder that for a long time the food industry in one form or another has been the bedrock of the economy of many countries.
Our country is no exception.I must say that the food industry in Russia has always been a well-developed, as our state almost always is an agricultural power.The resulting materials have to be processed for storage or sale, so that the corresponding sector of the economy developed rapidly.In addition, Russia has not had a single peaceful century, that of supplying the army with quality food should take care of constantly.
first hit the Russian food industry has received during the First World and the Civil War gloomy it finally shattered.In comparison to 1900 production decreased just five times.However, already by 1927 the industry is almost completely restored to its former level, only to meet the needs of the young country, it was not able to.
Industrialization power, a sharp increase in the construction and deployment of production in all parts of the Soviet Union led to the need for a radical revision of the food industry, which existed until then.The relevance of this was the higher, the more high-quality raw materials began giving itinerant agricultural cooperatives and collective farms.Around the same years, the departments of Statistics figures brought the average needs of people of different professions in nutrients and certain categories of products.
During the Patriotic War of 1941-45 almost the entire food industry in Russia, located in the central parts of the state, again, was destroyed.Only saves the timely evacuation of most of the companies to the East.By the way, thanks to this circumstance in Kazakhstan today has advanced in the area of grocery industry.
It should be noted that the day of the food industry in Russia, which is celebrated on October 19 as time largely created in memory of the heroic labor of workers in the sector, which will ensure a continuous supply of food to the rear and to the front.
After five years, many sectors of the economy, including the food industry, have been restored to its original, pre-war level.That's just we have said that before the industry could not meet the increased needs of a rapidly growing and developing countries.In fact the situation was even worse.The fact that the population of rural areas feed almost exclusively those products that are grown in the garden.Industrial products people almost did not buy.
At that time, the country urgently needed as many workers.Natural "candidates" on their role was just the same peasants.That's just transport them in the city was impossible, as in this case, the number of people who consume foods could increase rapidly.Of course, this situation could lead to starvation.It was necessary to urgently refocus the industry to the new standards.Invaluable assistance in the major institutions have the food industry in Russia (Moscow, Kuban), which experts have developed a variety of programs retrofitting industry.
Unfortunately, local approach to solve this problem was chosen completely wrong.Kolkhoz contain prohibited cattle in personal farmsteads or legally restricted his number.It was assumed that in this case greatly increase productivity.Of course, to achieve this goal is constantly rising rate of production output.As for crop production, to increase the harvest of grain authorities decided to start plowing humus in Kazakhstan.
Here it was found out that for the normal operation of cultivated land is chronically short of qualified specialists.In fact, it turned out that only 40% of the total cultivated area could be used in accordance with agricultural regulations.Because of this, soil fertility drops rapidly, which in the end led to the need to buy grain abroad.
By the early 90s the food industry in Russia was not in the best condition.Because of the now legendary mismanagement, the economy has lost up to 40% of finished products and valuable raw materials.In the period from 1970 to 1986 steadily declined medical and physiological supply of many trades.In fact, normally fed in this regard only the representatives of the party elite, the military, sailors, pilots and astronauts.
At the beginning of 1991 population's need for vegetables, bread and pasta covered by about 80-90%.As for sugar, fat, meat, milk and poultry, this figure was almost 55-60% at best.Who is not familiar to become one of the hallmarks of the late USSR queue for "scarce" products?All institutions of the food industry in Russia in those years experienced a catastrophic shortage of personnel, rapidly falling level of training of experts produced.
After 1991 began a rapid decline in overall production.Some food industry reduced production volume by 60%.Market conditions deteriorated more rapidly due to the fact that potential buyers simply do not have the money to buy the products of domestic manufacturers.All this occurred against the backdrop of a powerful flood of cheap imports, which surged through the river to open the border.Each production of the food industry in Russia in those years was simply forced to resort to a disadvantage for themselves dumping designed to keep at least some buying interest in their products.
condition technical component industry
By the early 90s and in this area it was very sad.Physically, a lot of equipment already half expired, and as a moral "wear," he did was extraordinary.The growing technological backwardness and financial instability of the economy even further exacerbated the already not the most brilliant position of the domestic food industry.
As a result, Russian production was not able to provide its own population with food.The situation was more serious than most bodies of sanitary-epidemiological services showed a complete inability of many imported goods, even the most basic standards.Beef Salmonella - not the worst of what was then found.Naturally, the raw materials such as receiving food industry Russia itself.2014 in this respect is much better, our bodies of sanitary and epidemiological control work much harder.
components of the food industry in Russia
One of the main pillars of this industry in our country (and the world) is livestock.Its something we will now discuss.This sector of the economy provides at least 60% of valuable raw materials from which the domestic food.Alas, in Russia there are few regions in which nature allows breeding beef cattle.One of them is the Caucasus.The social situation there is such that recovery of the industry (relative) became possible only in recent years.
Accordingly, lately at least 60% of the needs of the population in the same beef borne entirely by imports, because of which the food industry suffers from Russia.2014 was marked by the introduction of Western sanctions.Oddly enough, but it is the latter circumstance allows us to hope for prudence of government, which, perhaps, still pay attention to their own producers.
In our country developed in two directions: meat and milk and dairy cattle.Developed only in the European part of Russia, where the climate and food supply make the production profitable enough.
domestic dairy production in recent years, characterized by a sufficiently high quality.The problem is the small amount of subsidy that the state sends to the borrowing sector.Theoretically, this is due to the entry into the WTO, but Germany and France, this fact does not prevent support their own farmers.To date, there is a paradoxical situation: despite the fact that the country is able to provide not less than 89% of the demand in the dairy products alone, we continue to buy it abroad.
Because of this greatly affected the food industry in Russia.Report by industry experts over the last year shows that a fully independent country is able to provide milk to go through five to seven years.Instead, domestic manufacturers again left without state orders and financing.
As for beef, the situation is even sadder.The fact that in our country, there are practically no dairy farming as such.All the meat of domestic origin, which appears on the shelves of our stores - from dairy cattle.It has such low nutritional characteristics as in the food industry is the raw material used only as a supplement to the pork.To organize the production of high-grade steaks or sausages from it can not be, and in fact these products could significantly increase the income of Russian producers.
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that at least 2/3 of the total needs for raw meat pig covers it.Domestic production of it is of fine quality and are always in high demand among consumers.The problem is that pork - quite expensive product for its production requires large subsidies for the construction of large pig farms.The realities of the same such that the state invests in them no hurry, preferring to finance foreign manufacturers.Own food and processing industry in Russia is experiencing a chronic shortage of funds.
food industry in Russia
And now look at the main branch of the food industry in Russia.The basis of the principle of placing the processing enterprises in the country put just two factors: the raw material and the consumer.In most cases, the construction of new enterprises is oriented on the availability of raw materials, as with the release of its food products require a great deal.When traffic on the more or less long distances require enormous costs to ensure its safety, but because production in these conditions become simply unprofitable.
Depending on the combination of all these factors, experts are three branches of the food industry, which are common in Russia:
- The sources of raw materials tends milk production, starch and molasses, sugar and vegetable oil, canned vegetable.For example, the production of sugar we have only in the Caucasus and Central Black Earth regions, as somewhere to take hundreds of thousands of tons of raw materials out of which comes a few dozen tons of finished products, is simply unprofitable and foolish.There are big enterprises of the food-processing industry of Russia (Aston, "South of Russia"), which produce oil.
- contrast, the production of bakery industry can be found throughout the country.This allows you to take it to the consumer food industry.Grain is relatively easy to transport the output of finished products from raw material is large enough.
- Mixed sector: flour and meat.Primary processing of raw materials produced in the immediate vicinity of its production, and then semi-finished products are sent to final processing.A perfect example - a fish.Freeze it performed by another trawler.Salt as herring, for example, produced even in Udmurtia, from which the sea is not to the nearest one thousand kilometers.
Other features industry
Generally, the domestic food industry includes hundreds of production cycles that are highly complex.The most important are the basic varieties.Their products are the raw material for more sophisticated industries.To those industries include: milling industry, production of raw sugar, the milk and its subsequent cooling.
They can also classify all food processing companies in Russia, specializing in the development of fish and the slaughter of cattle.But there already have to make distinctions between sectors: the same beef can directly go to the shops, and can be used for the production of sausages, meat loaf, and so on. D. It is the latter process is considered the most important since the resulting their performance products bringsthe lion's share of the profit to the manufacturer.
Important features production
food industry in our country only meets the needs of millions of consumers.This is due to a huge variety of companies, some of which are on the market for over a hundred years (Nestle, for example).The peculiarity of the industry is that we need to constantly find some new tastes and release forms, as the interests of consumers must be maintained.It is for the latter reason, a modern grocery industry is interested in the invention of new ways of packaging and its design.
Simply put, the food industry, not only in our country but also abroad, it employs thousands of people employed in the production of glass, paper, plastic and metal packaging.This is largely determines the nature of the raw material and the placement of the industry: it is better to pour the beer in the immediate vicinity of the plant where manufactured plastic and glass bottles.To carry them through half of the country - it is expensive.
main costs of food industry
If we talk about the profitability of this type of production, the considerable cost of the food industry in Russia are due to the need to acquire modern packaging lines and machines, the prices of which are not very democratic.A very large costs on professional printing design packages.Add to that the payments to designers, marketers, the costs of certification and promotion of its products.Thus, the modern food industry - the industry is very, very expensive.
main problems the food industry in our country
In general, many of them we have already said.Thus, the development of the food industry in Russia is very complicated because of the almost complete absence of state support for the industry.Costs for setting up the production lot (see above), tax - even more, and the real interest of the first persons of the state in ensuring its self-sufficiency of the country do not.
We must not forget that in the industry there are a few major players who control the market of food products all around the world.These companies know everyone, "Nestle", "Coca-Cola", "Unilever" and others.So, almost all the carbonated water produced by the plant, whose shares are owned by "Coke."It's the same in a situation with chocolate: even domestic buying candy, you are sponsoring the Swiss "Nestle".
Of course, these companies have the Russian food industry in a sense beneficial, as the federal budget paid a lot of taxes.The reverse side of the coin is that only one domestic production of carbonated water is almost completely killed, since smaller companies are simply not realistic to compete with such "whales" of the world industry.Here are the main problems of the Russian food industry.