Animal parasites.

Some of the animals are born and die, they spend their lives in the bodies of other fauna.First used as a second power supply.Animal parasites can be on the body of another animal to eat its blood.For example, fleas and lice live on the skin of the host (called the body, which occurs due to the existence of parasites).Some animal pests can provide themselves with food in the intestines, blood vessels and other organs, causing great harm to their owners.Death it may not cause, but it leads to a general weakening of the body and global.They can also cause diseases transmitted by some representatives of fauna to man.

parasitism

The word "parasite" has Greek roots and literally translates as "parasite."Large and small, "parasite" feed lymph and blood, tissues and digested food, either permanently or temporarily use other organisms as a habitat.Parasitism is one of the ways of co-existence of different types of animals.It is the inner, outer and female.

Internal

Such animal parasites (their names ar

e hundreds) penetrate into the internal organs of various animals that live there multiply, giving innumerable progeny, causing a variety of food poisoning their livelihoods, as well as - certain types of diseases.Man, as a rule, they can become infected by eating meat from animals that have not passed a sufficient heat treatment.

simplest

These animals are parasites are so small that they can be confused with the bacteria.According to the structure - a single-celled organisms.There may or may not have a shell, reproduce sexually or asexually, be static or moving.Typically, they are located in mucous, blood, and iron.From highly dangerous to humans can be identified pathogen Toxoplasma gondii toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis pathogen - Leishmania donovani.These parasites of animals and humans is usually transmitted with food.

Helminthes

dimensions of parasitic worms are different in length and up from a few millimeters to a few meters.May cause helminthiasis.They are divided into three groups: trematodes, nematodes and cestodes.

Flukes

attached with suction cups and have an elongated body with no segments that resembles a sheet.For example, liver fluke, which lives in the bile ducts of the sheep, but can be transmitted to man.It reaches centimeters in width and in length - up to three.

Cestodes

These animals are parasites are called "shadows" or tapeworms.They can parasitize in the adult stage in the intestine of man and animals.A larval - are in some organs of fish, insects, mammals.They have a flat segmented body of varying shapes.Eat diffusely, with the help of osmosis, as the lack of the digestive system.For example, ekinokokk can parasitize the intestine of dogs and tapeworm (sometimes it reaches a length of five meters) - in the adult stage in the human colon.The larval stage of the tapeworm in the muscles of the pig runs, and by consuming such meat without sufficient heat treatment, people may also become infected.

Nematodes These nematodes (eg, Trichinella spiralis) have a length of up to three millimeters.Adult forms are parasitic in the intestines of animals and humans, the larvae may be in the muscles.When the consumption of pork, infected larvae, the man usually also infected with nematodes.

arthropod animal parasites

Examples: mites, lice, fleas and mosquitoes.From ticks, which are intermediate hosts and vectors of different pathogens - whole family Ixodes (Ixodidae).A family Sarcoptidae also includes a variety of mites that cause scabies in humans.Parasites penetrate into the intradermal moves in order to lay their eggs, or live on the skin surface.They belong to the external parasites.

Mosquitoes

It also allowed external parasites.Examples of these "nahlebnicheskoy" activities - the power of blood.On the human body or animals, they do not live, but parasitic, using a blood meal (ectoparasitism).Interestingly, individuals of both sexes feed on mosquito usually juice and nectar plants.However, in many species (in Russia they are more than a hundred) is the adaptation of the mouth to pierce the skin of the victim.A female receives nutrients from the blood and gains the ability to save more eggs.And there are two power options: blood and nectar.But the blood of the female gets proteins as building materials for their eggs.Males used as a food nectar, refraining from parasitism.It is proved by science, that some species of mosquitoes can be used as a meal the blood of birds, reptiles and even - fish!

Leeches

These relatives of the earthworm also prefer the blood as food.Sucking it, they parasitize the expense of other organisms.Leeches detect body temperature of the victim or by smell.Then attach themselves, biting through the skin three existing jaws.Their saliva is well adapted by nature to give an analgesic effect and prevents blood clotting.

Lampreys

They are freeloaders fish.His mouth lamprey attaches itself to the body of the fish, tearing the skin.Thus it is able to suck the blood and other fluids from the wound.When the process of saturation, lampreys falls off sores and falls to the bottom, until it gets hungry again.

What animals parasites still exist in nature?These include isopods.They bite through, usually the skin or shells of sea inhabitants and fed in such a way "riding on horseback" on your host.

brood parasite

Oddly enough, the birds - also animal pests.The names of these flying "freeloaders" has about eighty species and five families.The most famous representative is the cuckoo.It puts its eggs in another's nest, in a manner causing the birds of other species (for example, the woodpecker) kukushat grow.A cuckoo hatched, woodpecker throws eggs from the nest, eliminating competition.

Some fish and insects are also involved in this brood parasite, using other animals for rearing their offspring.