Vowel and consonant letters and sounds

The different vowel and consonant letters and sounds?What rules they obey?As indicated by the hardness and softness of sounds and letters?All these questions you will get the answers provided in the article.

Overview of vowels and consonants

vowel and consonant letters are the basis of all of the Russian language.After using combinations formed syllables, which are formed into words, phrases, sentences, texts and so on.That is why this topic is devoted quite a lot of hours in high school.

vowel letters and sounds in Russian

about what vowels and consonants are in the Russian alphabet, one learns from the very first class.And despite the seeming simplicity of the topic, it is considered one of the most difficult for students.

So, in the Russian language has ten vowels, namely: Oh, and, a, s, w, i, e, e, y, e. During their immediate pronunciation can be felt as air passes freely through the mouth.Here we quite clearly hear your own voice.It should also be noted that the vowel sounds can be dragged (ah-ah-ah-ah, uh-uh-uh, and-and-and-and-and, oo-oo-oo-oo-oo, and so on).

Features vowels and letters

Vowels are the basis of style, that is, they organize it.As a rule, in the words of Russian syllables as much as there are vowels.Here is a vivid example:-Th-ni-ki - 5 syllables, re-os-ta - 3 syllable, he - one syllable, but the o-- two syllables, and so on.There are even words that consist of only one vowel.This is usually interjections (A !, Oh !, Do-oo!) And unions (and, and, and so on.).

Spelling of vowels in the root word endings, suffixes and prefixes - this is a very important topic in the subject "Russian language".Indeed, without knowing how to write such letters in a particular word, it is quite difficult to make literate letter.

consonants and sounds in Russian

vowel and consonant letters and sounds vary considerably.And if the first is easy to pull, the latter spoken as short as possible (except for the hissing as they can pull).

should be noted that in the Russian alphabet number of consonants - 21, namely, b, c, d, e, g, h, k, k, l, m, n, n, p, s, t, f,x, y, h, w, w.Sounds designated by them, they can be divided into voiced and voiceless.What is the difference?The fact is that during the pronunciation of voiced consonants person can hear not only the characteristic noise and your own voice (s !, b !, pi, and so on.).As for the deaf, they can not be loud or say, for example, to shout.They create only a kind of noise (sh-sh-sh-sh-sh, s-s-s-s-s and so on.).

Thus, almost all consonants are divided into two different categories:

  • calls - b, c, d, e, g, h, k, l, m, n, p;
  • deaf - k, n, s, t, p, x, y, h, w.

softness and hardness of consonants

Not everyone knows, but the vowels and consonants can be hard and soft.It is the second most important feature in the Russian language (after voicing and voicelessness).

distinctive feature soft consonants is that during their pronunciation of the language of the person receives a special position.As a rule, he moves a little forward, and all of its middle part is slightly raised.As for the hard consonants, the pronunciation of the language as they pulled back.Can you compare the situation of his own organ of speech: [n] - [n '], [r] - [m'].It should also be noted that the voiced sounds sound soft and slightly higher than the solid.

In Russian almost all consonants have a pair on the basis of softness and hardness.However, there are those who simply have not.These include solid - [x], [w] and [q] and soft - [D '], [h'] and [u '].

softness and hardness vowels

Certainly few people have heard that in the Russian language are soft vowels.Soft consonants - it is quite usual for us the sound can not be said about the above.This is partly due to the fact that in high school the topic hardly given time.It's obvious by what vowels consonants become soft.However, we decided to let you into this topic.

So soft called those letters, which are able to soften them before reaching the consonants.These include the following: and, e, i, e, w.With regard to the letters like a, y, u, e, o, they are hard, because they do not soften going ahead consonants.To verify this we give some examples:

  • package;
  • child;
  • car;
  • speech;
  • clothes;
  • bed;
  • computer;
  • Peter;
  • wood;
  • frost;
  • fun;
  • small and others.

designation soft consonants at the phonetic analysis of words

sounds and letters of the Russian language studies phonetics.Surely, in high school you have more than once asked to do a phonetic analysis of a word.During this analysis, be sure to indicate whether considered separately consonant soft or not.If so, it must be indicated as follows: [H '], [m'], [d '], [in'] [M] [ri].That is at the top right of the consonants facing the soft vowels required to put a kind of dash.Similarly, the icon marked and following the soft sounds - [D '], [h'] and [u '].