air - a mixture of gases, mainly nitrogen (78%) and O2 (21%).The bulk of the air (80%) is in the lower atmosphere - the troposphere.The troposphere is located at an altitude of about 15 km from the Earth's surface.Located above the upper atmosphere, where the air is so rarefied that they are unsuitable for life and are called "vacuum."
Above the troposphere to about 60 km altitude above the Earth's surface extends a huge vacuum.This - the stratosphere.This layer is called "predkosmos" or "door to space."The main feature of it is a gradual increase in temperature vertically.From minus 60 ° C at an altitude of 15-20 km from the Earth's surface up to + 2 ° C, respectively, at the highest point of the stratosphere at an altitude of about 55-60 km.
Stratosphere - a stable layer of the atmosphere where there is no air convection.
water vapor in this layer is practically absent.But at an altitude of about 25 km there are sometimes called "pearl" clouds.Their study and elucidation of the nature of origin conducted by scientists all over the world.
ozone layer - a protective barrier
important discovery was the stratospheric ozone layer, consisting of a special oxygen molecules O3.This layer has a thickness of 2-3 mm, but it performs a very important function of protecting the planet and all life on it from the damaging effects of ultraviolet solar radiation.By studying the properties of the ozone shield, scientists have found that it can destroy freon gas, once used extensively in the industry.Currently, the use of Freon is forbidden worldwide because ozone depletion will inevitably lead to the death of all life on Earth.
beyond Earth's atmosphere begins infinite vacuum.This space.Scientists believe that the entire cosmos is composed of many galaxies.Each galaxy has its own structure.Humanity lives in a galaxy called the Solar System, which consists of a star - the sun - and the planets revolving around it.
Scientists distinguish such concepts as "near" and "far" space.
near space objects are in the solar system.It planets and their satellites, the moon, meteorites, asteroids, comets.Deep-sky objects are located outside the solar system.It stars, galaxies, nebulae, black holes.Distances are calculated to light years.
vacuum.Difficulties in learning
main difficulty in the study of the stratosphere is that at this altitude the air is extremely sparse.A person can not survive here without a special suit.Besides the lack of oxygen for breathing very low atmospheric pressure leads to the fact that in humans the blood begins to boil.Naturally, it is incompatible with life.Therefore, the study of the stratosphere began relatively recently - in the 30s of the 20th century, when invented the so-called stratospheric balloon.For the first time in the stratospheric balloon to an altitude of 16 km up the Swiss O. Piccard and Kipfer AP.3 years later, in 1934, in the stratosphere rose Soviet crew.Unfortunately, this scientific expedition ended tragically - the entire crew was killed.
If stratosphere to study hard, the exploration of space - it's all incredibly complex, enormously expensive and often impossible at this stage of the process of science.
for research facilities "near" space used by spacecraft and interplanetary probes.Man is given way to machines in the direct study of the cosmos, because this place is very dangerous.
Learning Objects "long" space is possible only in theory.
Anthropological use vacuum
vacuum - the space is absolutely free from any kind of material, including from the air, t. E. It is also a vacuum.The heavy and light industry, medicine, construction widely used vacuum devices.In everyday life it is a well-known vacuum cleaner.Get the absolute emptiness is incredibly difficult, and scientists are on the way to this goal.A truly deep vacuum exists only in space.
Stratosphere - an ideal place for military pilots.Shells do not fly so high, and the bombers or reconnaissance flying machines are virtually invulnerable to air defense.On the "second floor" atmosphere launching unmanned balloons that help meteorologists predict the weather as accurately as possible.
vacuum under the name space is used to launch satellites, which provide the connection to the planet, help in mineral exploration, provide predictions of impending storms, cyclones and storms, to help prevent drought and floods.
study of outer space has radically changed some ideas of scientists about the matter.
In addition, the study of the cosmos moves endless human curiosity, the desire to "look out the window," to know the mysterious.