Over the past twenty-five years, our country has gone through a lot of shocks directly affect its further future.The first of them - is the collapse of the Soviet Union, which meant scrapping the whole system of government, and then the formation of a new country - the Russian Federation.
Russia has always been a huge territorial entity, the effective management of which presents certain difficulties.The Russian Empire was held by the autocratic power of the emperor, who controlled the bureaucratic apparatus, even the smallest processes it with a huge size of the country are linked in part of the reform of regional administration.The first time was during the reign of Peter the Great, which divided the whole country into provinces headed by governors, and the heads of the regions were also accountable to specific colleges, so the king was trying to enter the threefold system of governance.However, some areas of the territory were equal to some European countries, so it made further division into more provinces.In general, the reform to some extent streamlined management, and the center has had an opportunity over the operational control of remote regions.However, there was still no clear subordination.
correcting the situation, the Empress holds a new reform.In 1775, a decree was issued on the division of Russia in the 51 province, which, in turn, were divided into districts.At the head, as before, I was the governor, but further significant changes were made.To control entered the post of Governor-General, who united under his command several areas, all from 1775 till 1917 was created 20 th Governor-Generalship and the special administrative-territorial unit - Caucasus governorship.As you can see, this system is very similar to Federal District, which also changed repeatedly.The government of Catherine II did it in order to strengthen supervision of local authorities to control the action of governors and reduce the likelihood of people's protests and discontent.Indeed, it is possible to greatly improve the efficiency of the administrative bureaucracy.
Soviet control system
Revolution of 1917 brought about changes in the management of the country.The Bolsheviks initially gave the outskirts and remote areas considerable power.Which subsequently led to even overthrow the Soviet government in some regions.Realizing his mistake, SNK quickly began to change tactics and strategy management unit.In the formation of the Soviet Union it has been declared federalist principles of the state, but in fact all power controlled party officials, and if you draw an analogy with the Russian Empire, it becomes clear that the essence has not changed.But only the name has changed.So, instead of governors and other regional administrator enters a different level party secretaries who supported the iron discipline in their respective "estates."The degree of centralization in the Soviet period reached its climax and its level was much higher than imperial.
How many Russian federal districts?
collapse of the USSR and the subsequent "parade of sovereignties" of the Russian Federation has put virtually on the brink of collapse.Many parts of the state introduced its legislation, which was at odds with the federal, regional control of the capital was almost zero.In this situation, Russian President Vladimir Putin has decided to revive the inter-regional governance with a clear and rigid scheme of subordination.In May 2000, followed by presidential decree "On the federal districts."A total of 7 units created.That's how much the federal districts in Russia was originally.The boundaries were drawn by analogy with the division of the Russian Prosecutor General's Office.Begins to build a clear three-tier system of administrative control.Number of federal districts in Russia has changed more than once, and this was due to political events, and the geographical convenience.The legal framework of these changes represented a wide range of federal laws.Appointment Plenipotentiary of the President in the Federal District produces a head of state.
political reasons for the changes and regulatory framework
How many federal districts in Russia at the moment, given the recent transformation (in particular from the Southern Federal District has been allocated the North Caucasus Federal District)?In March 2014 in connection with the political developments in Ukraine and the referendum in the Crimea was formed another federal district -Krymsky FD.Thus, we can say that there are just nine federal districts, responding to a question about how much Russia's federal districts.Creating such a system of government has strengthened control of the federal government over the regions, without compromising the basic principles of asymmetric federation, the Russian Federation is a way under the Constitution.Legislative base of subjects of Russia has been in full compliance with the federal law.Federal District of Russia on the map of the country marked by different colors, so you can quickly find out where what area and what areas are included in this administrative unit.
Final picture of the administrative-territorial unit of the Russian Federation
We have already dealt with the number of DOF, and now understand, what the federal districts in Russia exist.And that's how it looks:
- Central Federal District (Moscow).
- North-West Federal District (St. Petersburg).
- Southern Federal District (Rostov-on-Don).
- North Caucasus Federal District (Pyatigorsk).
- Far Eastern Federal District (Khabarovsk).
- Siberian Federal District (Novosibirsk).
- Ural Federal District (Ekaterinburg).
- Volga Federal District (Nizhny Novgorod).
- FD Crimean (Simferopol).
All of these units are subject to the authorized representative of the head of state, who, in turn, is directly subordinate to the president of Russia.His scope of competence includes the supervision and control functions, which was created by the device, consisting in different districts of varying the number of offices.Today we can say that the federal district of Russia (the composition of these units) correspond to the stated power needs.