Russia is the largest country around the globe.Its area reached 17.1 million square meters.Located on the Eurasian mainland state.Russia has a greater extent from west to east, so its regions, there is considerable difference in time.
customs, economic and other borders of Russia placed outside the former Soviet Union, which in itself is a unique phenomenon.After the collapse of the Soviet Union, all the CIS countries are faced with a serious problem.On the one hand the inconsistency of legislative and financial systems forced them to close the economic area, but the new border line state did not coincide with ethnic cultural boundaries, and the public did not want to accept the imposed border restrictions, and most importantly - Russia was not able in such a short period of conductdemarcation and equip engineering structures.Also, a big problem was the establishment of customs points.
description of the boundaries of the state
length of the borders of Russia reaches 60 thousand kilometers, of which 40,000 km are on the maritime borders.Economic maritime space in the country is 370 kilometers from the coastal zone.There may be courts of other states for the extraction of natural resources.The western and southern borders of the Russian Federation - primarily land, north and east - mainly sea.The fact that the state borders of Russia have such a great extent, be explained by the huge size of its territory and roughness lines outline coasts of the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic oceans, which wash it on three sides.
land borders Russia
the west and east of the country's land borders are a number of specific differences.In pre-revolutionary Russia were marked by natural boundaries.As the state expanded, it was necessary to somehow fix the borders of the seas and land.At the same time in sparsely populated areas for greater recognition must be clearly designated - it could be a mountain range, a river and so on.But this terrain is observed mainly on the eastern side of the southern border.
western and south-western border of the state land
Modern lines the western and south-western borders of Russia emerged from the section of individual actors in the country.As more is administrative boundaries that had previously been domestic.They were virtually non-natural objects.Thus was formed the Russian border with Poland and Finland.
land borders of Russia also have a large extent.After the collapse of the Union of the number of neighbors remained the same.A total of fourteen.With Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States it has only maritime borders.But in Soviet times the country borders with only eight states, other lines between the states were considered to be internal and conditional.In the northwest border of the Russian Federation in contact with Finland and Norway.
Member State has officially received Russia's borders with Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia.Along the western and south-western borders are Ukraine and Belarus.The southern part of the country borders with Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, the Republic of Tuva, Altai, Buryatia.In the extreme southeast of the Russian Primorye Territory is bordered by North Korea.The length of the boundary line - only 17 km away.
Sea border with Russia to the north and east of the country is 12 miles from the coastline.According to the Russian sea borders with 12 countries.The northern border pass through the waters of the Arctic Ocean - a sea of Kara, Laptev Sea, the Barents Sea, the East Siberian and Chukchi.Within the Arctic Ocean, from the Russian coast and up to the North Pole, it is the sector of the Arctic.It is limited to conventional lines of the peninsula from the west and east of the island Fishermen Ratmanova to the North Pole.Polar possession - a relative term, and the territorial waters of Russia in this sector do not belong, we can only talk about accessories waters of the Arctic waters.
eastern Russian border
sea border between Russia and its eastern part passes through the seas of the Pacific Ocean.On this side of the country's closest neighbors are the US and Japan.With Japan, the Russian borders in the La Perouse Strait and the Bering Strait - with the United States (between the island Ratmanova, who is Russian, and Kruzenshtern, the state-owned).Between the peninsula of Chukotka, Alaska, Kamchatka and the Aleutian Islands are located Bering Sea.In the Kamchatka Peninsula, the island of Hokkaido, the Kuril and Sakhalin is the Sea of Okhotsk.
southern coast of Sakhalin and Primorye Territory washed by the Sea of Japan.All seas of the Far East, with which Russia has a maritime border, partly freeze.And Okhotsk, even taking into account the fact that part of it lies in the southern parallel, is the most severe in this regard.In the north-western part of the duration of the ice period is 280 days a year.Because of the large extent of the seas on the eastern line of Russia in the north to the south of the climatic conditions in the country vary considerably.
In the summer, the waters of the Sea of Japan come typhoons, which are fraught with great destruction.On the Pacific coast in its seismically active zones occur tsunami disaster occurring as a result of coastal and underwater earthquakes.
Problems eastern border of Russia
sea border between Russia and the United States is now marked, but previously there were border problems.Russian Empire in 1867 sold Alaska for seven million dollars.There are certain difficulties in defining the borders of the states in the Bering Strait.There are problems in Russia and Japan, contesting islands of the Lesser Kuril Ridge, a total area of 8548.96 square meters.km.The dispute arose about the state waters of the Russian Federation and the area of three hundred thousand square kilometers, including the economic zone of the sea and islands that is rich in seafood and fish, and shelf zone having oil reserves.
In 1855, a contract was concluded, according to which the islands of the Lesser Kuril Ridge preserved for Japan.In 1875, Japan is moving all the Kurile Islands.In 1905, on the basis of the Russian-Japanese War was concluded Portsmusky agreement, Russia ceded to Japan and South Sakhalin.In 1945, when Japan signed the act of unconditional surrender, the island of Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands became part of the Soviet Union, but their nationality was not determined in the agreement of 1951 (San Francisco).The Japanese side insisted that the South Kuril Islands - is part of Japan, and they have no relation to the contract of 1875 since they are not part of the Kurile chain, and belong to the Japanese islands, and because the agreement signed in San Francisco, they are not covered.
The western border of the state
western sea border connects Russia to many European countries.She takes on the waters of the Baltic Sea, which belongs to the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and forms the coast of Russia bays.They placed the Russian ports.In the Gulf of Finland is the northern capital of Russia - Saint Petersburg - and Vyborg.On a tributary of the River Vistula Lagoon Prelog is Kaliningrad.Close Novoluzhsky port is built at the mouth of the Luga River.The Baltic Sea does not freeze just off the coast of the Kaliningrad region.This Russian sea border on the map connects the country (across the sea) with such countries as Poland, Germany and Sweden.
southwestern part of Russia is washed by the Azov, Black and Caspian Seas.Sea borders the Black Sea give Russia access to the Mediterranean.In Tsemesskaya Bay is the port of Novorossiysk.The Taganrog Bay - the port of Taganrog.The city of Sevastopol is one of the best bays.Azov and the Black Sea are of great importance for transport links with the countries of Russia Abroad in Europe and the Mediterranean.Also, the Russian maritime border in contact with Georgia and Ukraine.In the south, the waters of the Caspian Sea is the border with Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan.
Consequently, the Russian border in largely pass on natural boundaries: the mountains, the seas and rivers.Because some of these complicated international contacts (high mountains, glaciers, the sea, and so on).Others, on the contrary, favorable for cooperation with its neighbors and allow the river to lay land and international routes, create economic space.
ends of Russia
In the northern part is a point at Cape Chelyuskin, which is located on the Taimyr Peninsula.At the point of the island is Cape lodge, which is located on an island in the archipelago of Franz Josef - Rudolph.At the southern point is the crest of the Caucasus mountain range, the western - the ultimate sand spit of the Baltic Sea, the eastern - Cape Dezhnev on the Chukchi Peninsula.
Features of the geographical location of Russia
Most of the country is in the temperate latitudes, but the northern part is located in the harsh conditions of the Arctic.The territory of Russia is rich in various natural resources that are available in large quantities.The country occupies a leading place in the world in size and the area of land resources.The area of Russian forests reach seven hundred million hectares.
sheer size of the country is very important both from an economic point of view, and with the defense.The territory of the Russian Federation has the largest extent of the plain on the planet.This West Siberian and Russian (Eastern European) Plain.In the northern area of the country affected by air masses of the Arctic Ocean.The territory of Russia is rich in various kinds of minerals and minerals.It is concentrated about 40% of the world's iron ore reserves.The main area of fields and rich deposits of copper ore is considered the Ural and Ural region.Here, in the Middle Urals, there are deposits of precious stones such as emerald, ruby, amethyst.And another interesting feature of the country is that it is located in all geographic areas of the northern hemisphere, except the tropics.