Even in Soviet times there were slogans of "Forest - it is our wealth," or "Take care of the forest."Indeed, the timber is a resource which can be used for various purposes.This fuel, and building materials, and paper, and other spheres of human activity.And if you treat this resource carefully and prudently, it is possible to obtain considerable economic benefits and improve the environment all over the country.
What is a forest?
Forest with geographical and biological point of view - this is an area of land larger, overgrown with trees and shrubs between them and other vegetation.Russian forests occupy an area of about 850 million. Hectares of the total area (1,712,518,700 hectares - an area of the state).
forest is an ecosystem that is closely related living and nonliving organisms.The former includes all plants, microorganisms and animals.The second group - the air, water and soil.And from nonliving components (abiotic) depends on the composition of the forest and its flora and fauna.
role of forests in nature
If earlier to forest plantations were treated just as consumers, but today the situation is somewhat different.Many leaders from different economic and political spheres began to realize that the forest - our wealth, and began to call for a more efficient use of it.The impact on the environment is as follows:
- Participation in the water cycle and maintenance of the water balance.
- Formation of soil cover.
- presence of forests contributes to the formation of weather and climate.
- forests help reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect.
role of forests in the economy of the state
Even during times of Kievan Rus was important forest.Our wealth lies in the many areas of use.For example, this:
- source of animal and plant food;
- building material;
- source of fuel (wood, charcoal, bio-fuels);
- raw materials for industries such as pulp and paper, chemical, wood processing;
- source of food for animals.
Green plants trees - both natural and controlled - have a great impact on human health.Wood is able to convert some impurities, particularly atmospheric.These properties have the greatest pine, birch and linden wood.They are very well absorb the dust and industrial pollution, which is why in the cities carried out reforestation in the form of parks and groves.Volatile allocated certain species of trees, contribute to recovery.Therefore, you should always remember that the forest - our wealth, and the careful and rational use it.
harm irrational felling of trees
Although the forest is self-perpetuating and self-healing ecosystem, it needs to be protected from various destructive factors.This is due to long-term unsustainable use of wood and increase pollution.The value of the forest is difficult to overestimate.But the fact that his role was not defined for a long time, caused some regions of the Russian Federation irreparable harm.
to the greatest catastrophe caused deforestation on the coast of the Aral Sea.The destruction of trees upset the balance of the water cycle in the adjacent areas on the lake.As a result of increased evaporation and even uncontrolled withdrawal of water for irrigation of agricultural land.The Aral Sea became shallow enough that split into two lakes.
By a similar situation led the destruction of the trees along the coast of the Volga.The river became shallow enough that the deep-draft ships can not pass through the channel.The need for mass planting of forests to a few decades down the level of environmental disaster.Perhaps, then, the water level will rise a little.
Russian forests and their protection
Since trees play an important role in nature and affect the ecological situation, they require careful treatment and protection.In Russia, for their protection issued federal laws that govern the procedure for the use of forests, as well as measures for their protection and restoration.
According to the "Law on the Protection of the Environment", the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Forest Code, the Civil Code, the Declaration of the United Nations and other regulations, forest protection are carried out by means of monitoring, creating and maintaining forest inventory, forestry development.All these measures and their proper organization allows more efficient use of natural resources.The greatest value among them are gaining Forestry - with their help to solve many issues related to the protection of trees and other greenery.
forests and forestry
Russian forests require protection and careful attitude.The main body that is engaged is forestry.It has the following functions:
- protection of forest plantations from unauthorized felling;
- protection and prevention of pests;
- timely removal of dead wood to reduce the risk of fire;
- fire safety;
- protection of fauna from extinction;
- planting new seedlings for reforestation.
Such measures can save the quality and quantity of forest Russia.Forestry can control the number of trees of each variety by logging and planting of seedlings, thereby maintaining the forest intact.If such control is not performed, some trees have replaced other uncontrollable, and therefore would have changed, and the rest of the flora and fauna.Just all the complex measures can save the forest.Our wealth must multiply, not diminish with each passing year.
forests and protection from fires
Despite the fact that many people realize that the forest - our wealth, and it must be protected, so far the biggest problem is a fire.Especially forest fires often occur in the summer, which is characterized by low humidity, high temperature and absence of precipitation for a long period of time.Especially the fire is spreading rapidly in strong winds.In spite of the adopted laws, the material basis for the full implementation of measures for prevention and firefighting is very weak.
about such failure evidence of fire, which affected the forests of Russia and even towns.In 2014, the fire is so frequent that in June issued a special decree on amendments to the rules for control of reliable information about fire safety.This happened after the fires in the Trans-Baikal region (April 2014), Amur (April 2014) and the Irkutsk region.In many regions, a regime of emergency and banned access to the inhabitants of the forest surrounding settlements.
Perhaps in the future, equipment and technologies will allow to prevent fires in the forests, but today the area arrays, covered with fire increases.When all the people will be more careful with the trees, will create a complete material and technical base, and then the protection will be more efficient.