probably in world literature there is not as well-known and great work, does not lose its relevance over the centuries, as the play "Romeo and Juliet".Who wrote this immortal creation, it is now known to all educated people.One of the tragedies of William Shakespeare fame - "Romeo and Juliet."Its author - a famous English poet and playwright - is recognized as the greatest of the geniuses of the Renaissance.His tale of Romeo and Juliet is riddled with light feeling of love, wins not only many years of human enmity, but also death.
«Romeo and Juliet" ... who wrote a work of genius?It is known that before the creation of the play said there were several legends and stories by other authors about the love of two representatives of the warring clans.The basis of Shakespeare's tragedy lay three novels.The earliest was written in 1562 by Arthur Brooke, a famous playwright.It was called "The tragic story Romeusa and Juliet."This poem is considered a direct source of the plot, which is based on the work of "Romeo and Juliet."
Who wrote another prototype of Shakespeare's plays, as we know from the history of literature.They became the story of "Romeo and Juliet", created one of the famous Italian writers of the XVI century, Matteo Bandello.Still later, the Italian writer and historian Luigi da Porta wrote the novel "The story of two noble lovers," almost completely repeats the story of Shakespeare's plays.
It is known that William Shakespeare has changed only slightly earlier work, for example, in the early plays of the action took place over a long period of time - about nine months.Shakespeare is the plot on everything allocated five days.
«Romeo and Juliet."Summary
In the play, the author describes the events that are taking place in the Italian city of Verona.Two warring clan, two families - Montagues and Capulets, long time competing with each other.Their enmity that fades, then resumes again.The last outbreak starts with the hassle of the servants, and then transferred to the present carnage.Romeo Montague, heir to one of the families is not involved in bloodshed, he is busy with thoughts of winning a noble beauty Rosaline, whose heart he wanted to conquer.His friends - Mercutio and Benvolio - attempting to divert him from the heavy thoughts, but Romeo continues to grieve.
At this time in the Capulet family planned a happy holiday.These people do not have aristocratic roots, but they are very wealthy, and with the help of organized balls tend to further demonstrate their wealth and luxury.Their feast invited a relative of the Duke - Count Paris, who falls under the spell of the beautiful Juliet and asks for her hand the head of the family.Juliet's father gives his consent, despite her young age daughter.Juliet only 13 years old.
At this time, friends Romeo offering him to put on a mask and enter the house of Capulet the ball to have fun.Romeo agrees.One of the relatives of the Capulet family - Tybalt - recognizes Romeo son of Montague, which is enmity.But at this time Romeo sees Juliet falls in love with her at first sight and forgets about his former ladylove Rosaline.Juliet also falls in love with Romeo, they are hiding from everyone and give each other an oath of loyalty.
Late in the evening after the ball goes to the Juliet balcony and begins to talk aloud about his feelings for Romeo, he hears her words and she recognized in the second drive.Lovers are planning to get married.Early in the morning helps them brother Lorenzo - servant of the monastery of St. Francis.
At the same time, meet by chance Mercutio and Tybalt.Between them, a quarrel breaks out, and Tybalt kills Mercutio.Romeo has to avenge the death of his friend, he kills Tybalt.Then a young man hiding in order not to incur the wrath of the Duke.He is forced to flee the city.Before it spends the night of Romeo and Juliet, the approach of dawn is their separation.Listening to the chirping of morning larks, they are forgiven.
Family Juliet Capulet is set to give Count of Paris, and the bride's parents begin to prepare for the wedding.She desperately seeking solace from his brother Lorenzo, and he offers her a cunning plan - a drink that plunged her into a deep sleep, like death.Juliet will be sleeping in the meantime everyone will think she was dead, and thus be able to avoid the fatal wedding.Romeo sent a letter, which warned of the plan.Unfortunately, the messenger does not have time to warn Romeo because of a quarantine on the plague, and the news of Juliet's death comes sooner.Romeo returns to Verona, to bid farewell to his beloved.
Seeing Juliet dead, not knowing that she was just sleeping, Romeo drinks poison, unable to imagine life without it.Juliet wakes up, when Romeo dead.She desperately feels guilty for the death of a loved one, snatching his dagger, striking himself in the heart.When the rival Montagues and Capulets families learn about the tragedy, they agree about the world - the death of beloved children softens their hearts, enmity ceases.Love of Romeo and Juliet becomes redemption for all the evil clan caused each other.
William Shakespeare."Romeo and Juliet".Who wrote the masterpiece
about the life of a talented English playwright William Shakespeare, there is very little information.He did not keep a diary, did not write down their memories, and virtually no one correspondence.All the documents have his signature, or even any record made him a hand, have great historical value.
William Shakespeare was born in the small English town of Stratford, which is located on the banks of the River Avon, in 1564.
His father, a wealthy merchant, went bankrupt when William was fifteen years old.From that age he was forced to earn a living.In 1585, William Shakespeare went to London.There he changed several jobs.For example, he kept watch horses while nobles watched performances.Then he joined the theater, which is sometimes replaced by the prompter, rewrote some role and saw to it that the actors came on the scene in time.Such work in the future, helped him put great plays, because he knew very well behind the scenes.
Gradually, after serving for several years, he made sure that he was given a small role on stage.Then he himself started writing and staging plays.Shakespeare is known for his poems and sonnets.Apart from "Romeo and Juliet" it has still some immortal works - "Midsummer Night's Dream," "Macbeth," "The Taming of the Shrew," "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Twelfth Night," "Much Ado About Nothing"and others.Total known 37 of Shakespeare's plays, 154 sonnets and poems 4.
Many of his lyrics, William did not invent, but simply recycled the actual events - precisely because of this talent, his works are known for their honesty and vitality.Shakespeare conveys the breath of the time - the humanistic ideas of the Renaissance.His works are profound, his characters - people are inspired and strong, they are struggling with human passions and vices.
One of the main ideas of the genius of Shakespeare: people should be judged not by the status and titles, not in terms of wealth or status, but in thoughts, actions and human qualities.Shakespeare's contribution to world culture can hardly be overestimated, and now his works are relevant, they win the hearts of millions of fans around the world.
William Shakespeare died at age 52 in 1616.He is buried in his hometown, Stratford.On his grave still come many fans and tourists.Perhaps life in the city would be completely stopped if it is not organized, "Shakespeare's" industry - each sign of the city certainly points to the genius of William Shakespeare.Crowds of tourists every year come to Stratford to venerate the tomb of the great writer and playwright.
play "Romeo and Juliet" raised thousands of times at many stages of the world.Perhaps, this play can be called one of the most popular in the repertoires of many world theaters.In Russia, the play "Romeo and Juliet" staged in the theater "Satyricon" them.Raikin, in the Theater.Pushkin and many others.The main characters played by the most talented actors, great directors are taken to put this play.
Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" - this is the eternal relevance ageless classic formulation which can be considered an honor for any theater.Musicals on the theme of star-crossed lovers are constantly updated, sometimes a tragedy made the most unexpected details, statement interpreted talented people in unexpected ways.«West Side Story» - is one of the adaptations of classic plays of Shakespeare, the world premiere was held for the first time in 1957.The play "Romeo and Juliet" (author - Shakespeare) - world culture heritage, she always attracts many admirers of the great master.
Romeo and Juliet in the movie
Since 1900, practically since the advent of cinema, Shakespeare ("Romeo and Juliet" in particular) had filmed a huge number of times.Almost every year in different countries of the world to make films about the tragedy of the lovers.In France and in the US, the UK and Spain, Mexico, Belgium, Italy, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal in the Romeo and Juliet play the best actors of world cinema.In the USSR, the film-ballet "Romeo and Juliet" was filmed in 1983, starring Alexander Mikhailov played and Olga Sirin.The last film co-production of the United States and Italy, was released in 2013.He was a success in many countries around the world and is recognized as one of the best for the year.
Based on the immortal Shakespeare's plays were written many academic works.In 1830, there was opera "Romeo and Juliet" by Bellini, in 1839 - the symphonic poem Berlioz, in 1938 published the ballet to Prokofiev's music.
addition to opera and classical compositions, there are many variants of rock bands and pop singers.Songs of Romeo and Juliet performed by V. Kuzmin, A. Malinin S. Penkin, D. Gurtskaya.The name of the play is used in the albums names of different groups.
product of "Romeo and Juliet" (translated in Russian and not only) reprinted hundreds of times.On motives of the play of the immortal short stories have been published by G. Keller's novel Anne Fortier.Creation of "Romeo and Juliet" in Russian for the first time appeared in the second half of the XIX century.One of the best is considered to transfer I. Raskovshenko.Popular with readers transfers Grekov, Grigorieva, Michalowski, Sokolovsky, Shchepkina-Kupernik Radlova.The work of "Romeo and Juliet" (English version was the original), translated by Boris Pasternak was greeted particularly warmly.This version - not the most accurate, but it is the most beautiful and poetic.That line belongs Pasternak "But the story of Romeo and Juliet will be woe ...".
To date tour in Verona offer to visit the house of Romeo and Juliet, and even their graves.In fact, it is known that these attractions have nothing to do with the literary characters of Shakespeare.However, in the yard of the house where supposedly lived Juliet is her statue, cast in bronze.Local legend has it that anyone touching her breast, find happiness and love.
Another interesting fact can be called that, in Italy, when they talk about Shakespeare and his heroes, decided to mention the first name of the girl, and then the guy - Romeo and Juliet.To use the Russian language more familiar names in the title of vice versa.
Juliet's Balcony - an important detail of any statement or movie about the legendary lovers.But we know that in the original version of Shakespeare is not about the balcony - Romeo listened to her speech just out the window.However, Juliet's balcony in time became one of the most important parts of sets of lovers.Guides of Verona and now exhibit many tourists is the balcony, where Juliet stood.
historical figures or fictional characters?
story of Romeo and Juliet is beautiful and very tragic.Many researchers, historians and literary critics are concerned about how to live the heroes of Shakespeare's plays really.It is known that some individuals did exist - for example, Escala, mentioned by Shakespeare, in fact I was the Duke of Bartolomeo della Scala.Approximately found what year is described in the play - 1302 th.
For Italy, the time is really characterized by various conflicts when different clans vied for titles and nobility kind.American historian Olin Moore devoted to the study of the legend of lovers for several years, and thanks to his research found out that it was in the years in question, in Verona really existed two clans with very similar names - Dal Capello and Montikoli.Between them was in fact the confrontation, which explains the different parties, whose supporters were these families.In the history of the city states that actually was a girl, not reciprocated high-ranking official and marry poor boys, in spite of pressure from relatives.Offended man avenged them, and the lovers have died during torture, and without admitting any guilt, and not parting even after death.
It is possible that the story of star-crossed lovers, described by Shakespeare in his tragedy was based on real events, but slightly changed by the author and is decorated with artistic details for emphasis.
symbol of eternal love
tragedy about two star-crossed lovers, from the pen of the great Shakespeare, for several centuries does not lose its relevance.The story happened more than four years ago, but the theme still lives in numerous theater productions, in sculpture and painting, music and cinema.Perhaps all of humanity with its diverse culture much impoverished would be if Shakespeare wrote his brilliant creation.
story of Romeo and Juliet - the most touching and beautiful story, known to the world.Young people are considered a symbol of high feelings, devotion and fidelity, eternal love and its power over death and time.In this play a lot of fans - there is a museum of love, in which all the exhibits showing the true story of Romeo and Juliet.There are clubs of fans of the legendary lovers.Juliet is even possible to write a letter - in one of its clubs operate special secretaries, who receive messages in different languages, read them and respond on behalf of Juliet.
In Valentine's Day, February 14, the club selects the most touching and romantic story and the writer receives a gift from Juliet.Thirteen girls victims of deep feelings, revered by fans as one that can bless lovers, give them confidence and bring true happiness.
The legend of the lovers of Verona is very popular to this day - there is a travel agency and a hotel, named in honor of Juliet in confectionery sold cakes of the same name, the guides give tours of the mansion, allegedly belonging to the families of Montagues and Capulets.The name "Romeo and Juliet" give champagne, confectionery, furniture, colors and scents - all that want to be considered romantic and beautiful.In general, it can be seen that the industry is also pleased to support the brand and the benefit of Romeo and Juliet - the story of their great sale, and manufacturers can not not use it.
not really matter whether there were heroes of Shakespeare's actually still people want to believe in a fairy tale, not to lose hope and to dream of the same strong and pure feeling, like Romeo and Juliet.Until we are able to love, the story of Romeo and Juliet will be one of the most popular and most romantic in the world culture.