Roundhouse is the point in which the maintenance work or repair compositions.It is also called traction part.
locomotive depots are divided into two categories.They can be fixed and working.First designed for locomotives Registry.Second is preparing locomotives that follow the main (operational) locomotive depot.Negotiable item is intended for maintenance of locomotives.They also carried out inspection of the second volume.There are holiday homes for staff.Currently, repair locomotive depot also as a separate category.Objects of this type are not assigned park of locomotives.At the same time in such a depot made major repairs, which are aimed at meeting the needs of one or more of the railways.
Historical information. Features Construction
operational locomotive depot has always been an integral part of the railways.Construction of such an object depended on many factors.For example, the complexity of the profile section of the Railways.Roundhouse was constructed at a certain distance from the neighboring.As a rule, between them fifty-one hundred kilometers.Specially placed traction on the part of the line connecting the capital of Russia and St. Petersburg.Roundhouse is located near the main circulating.Estimated traffic to the site determined the number of locomotive stalls.At the initial stage of repairing also carried out at the depot.A few years after the opening of the railways required changes.Workshop and locomotive depot became an independent enterprise.Up until 1933 a common service of rolling stock to control all elements of the system.Later, the Government decided that the carload economy will be an independent branch of railway transport.
locomotive depot had this name until the transition to the use of diesel and electric rods.After this point, they have at their disposal several types of locomotives.These were delivered to diesel and electric locomotives.Then the name was changed.Each item was renamed "Locomotive" after the disposal received several electric locomotives, diesel locomotives and steam locomotives.Multiple Units were called those items that were assigned park.They also carried out repair and maintenance of diesel and electric trains.As a rule, there was some maneuvering locomotives.These items are also called "electrodepot."A generic term used to name these objects - locomotive economy.
In the 70-ies.It increased the number of locomotive fleet, as the volume of traffic has increased significantly.Some of the major points of more than two hundred compositions.Depot could not provide high-quality service all types of locomotives.At that time, the items began to specialize in the maintenance of the individual series.Some depots be executed "podemochnyh" work to meet the needs locomotive points along the entire length of the road, and in some cases - even more.The smooth functioning of necessary equipment required, such as a bench and machining.Priority was given to the supply of spare parts.
introduction of new categories
totality of the above factors and the section that housed a particular locomotive depot, was the cause of the next units.Traction units were allocated in the following categories for the purpose: agile, multiple units, passenger and freight.The latter were located on large sorting hubs and stations.Passenger Depot to the respective sections of the railroad.A few items have a narrow specialization.The main locomotive depot in most cases, can play the role of working.It also mogzhet perform other functions.For example, many locomotive points Senna and Petrov Val Rtishchevo are circulating to Saratov.Most of the depot serve several functions.For example, the locomotive points can be simultaneously maneuvering, cargo and passenger.Those in the 80-ies.It was the locomotive depot of Moscow Rtishchevo, Saratov, Volgograd and Orenburg.The latter operates in this mode today.
functioning in the USSR
While in the locomotive depot was a system of preventative maintenance.This structure involves a relevant work, taking into account standards turnaround.Before the locomotive depot there were many problems.For their timely decision on the territory of the items needed to place the following items.
- Fuel storage.It is designed for storing a variety of lubricants, oils and fuel.
- Technical Service Center.It is necessary for locomotives and equipment repairs.
- turning triangle or circle.It is designed for process or periodic reversal of the locomotive.
- Ekipirovochnyj point.Most often it is aligned with the center of maintenance of locomotives.
- Repair shop.It is designed for large-scale work on reconstruction.
- Auxiliary points.They are necessary for the repair of individual units and units of the locomotive.
- Center rheostat tests.It is designed to carry out the relevant work.
- Holiday.They can use the members of locomotive crews in time between voyages.
- Administration and amenity building.It is designed to accommodate the changing rooms, showers, office and technical staff.
The locomotive points may be located many more items.For example, water treatment plants, boilers, facilities for washing compositions and other production units.
There are several variants of the internal structure points.For example, the first depot of the plan have a circular shape.Production of locomotives in these areas was carried out by their movement on one of the paths through the further installation of the desired ditch.The latter was carried out by means of the turntable in the center of the shed.Fan layout depot was applied later.Also used options with a turntable.At the beginning of the XX century, after the construction and reconstruction of the depot, widespread rectangular-step structure of repair facilities.
item Nikolaev railway
This locomotive depot is one of the oldest in Russia.It is a monument of cultural heritage.The object is included in the ensemble of buildings Nikolaev station on Komsomolskaya Square.It, in turn, is the historical territory.This depot has a circular structure.It began to be built in the middle of the XIX century.For project management posted architect Konstantin A. Ton.On the line was built nine locomotive depot.Mykolaiv station was near a pond, unlike the others.Locomotive depot was located on the shore of the Red pond.This factor influenced the introduction of major changes in the project.The building was on high ground, and shops were built separately.This was due to the fact that the locomotive depot was circular.Beside him was erected vodoemnoe building, which was built on an individual project.Architectural elements of the buildings made it look like a fortress tower.